Get e-book Constructing US Foreign Policy: The Curious Case of Cuba (Routledge Studies in US Foreign Policy)

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Constructing US Foreign Policy: The Curious Case of Cuba (Routledge Studies in US Foreign Policy) file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Constructing US Foreign Policy: The Curious Case of Cuba (Routledge Studies in US Foreign Policy) book. Happy reading Constructing US Foreign Policy: The Curious Case of Cuba (Routledge Studies in US Foreign Policy) Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Constructing US Foreign Policy: The Curious Case of Cuba (Routledge Studies in US Foreign Policy) at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Constructing US Foreign Policy: The Curious Case of Cuba (Routledge Studies in US Foreign Policy) Pocket Guide.
What is Kobo Super Points?
Contents:


  1. 19. American Empire
  2. Recommended For You
  3. Criticism of United States foreign policy
  4. Emergence of Foreign Policy | International Studies Quarterly | Oxford Academic

These historical foreign policy doctrines evolved through their principles, which became raised to constitutional status on May 11, The path toward the institutionalization of foreign policy has followed that of the strengthening of the Mexican state and its importance both regionally in Latin America and the global arena. This event in the history of Mexican diplomacy continues to be cited as evidence of Mexican leadership in the region.

The foundations of Mexican foreign policy invoke international law and multilateralism as mainstays for integration into international society, using peace and disarmament as spearheads for action, while also promoting activism and solidarity around issues concerning the developing world, defending the economic rights and responsibilities of states and, unquestionably, using cultural diplomacy to promote understanding among nations.

In the next section, we dig deeper into this argument. It should be said from the start: we consider it difficult to envision a Mexican foreign policy that is fully integrated into the third wave of modernity for our open, globalized world and its multiplicity of different types of diplomacy. Nevertheless, it is important to highlight some trends that point in the direction of building a more liberal, central role for Mexico in a clearly globalized, interconnected world. In addition, we must not forget that Mexico has shown great commitment to achieving the Millennium Development Goals and subsequently the Agenda for Sustainable Development.

The contrasts of this new vision with traditional Mexican foreign policy are explored below, based on our epistemological proposal underpinning the analysis of how a modern foreign policy is shaped, and how modernity is articulated in diplomatic practice. Every six years, each new presidential administration issues a National Plan for Development NPD , which lists concrete goals and objectives for Mexican foreign policy. Nonetheless, there are persistent obstacles to achieving a greater projection of Mexican diplomacy and the promotion of national interests in international relations, one of them being the budget and staff size of the MFS.

The small size of its diplomatic corps prevents the Mexican government from responding quickly to contemporary international challenges. On one hand, the budget assigned to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has remained virtually unchanged for several years. On the other, despite a slight increase in the number of Mexican diplomatic posts in , the number of MFS staff has remained almost static since , at less than 1, members.

According to the U. Census Bureau, the population of Mexican origin increased from This places it behind countries such as South Korea and Turkey which, along with Mexico, are considered emerging countries and participate in a number of international dialogue initiatives such as the MIKTA comprising Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea, Turkey, and Australia. It must also be noted that, as seen in Table 1 , Turkey is ranked fourth with representations abroad, despite falling behind Mexico in terms of both gross domestic product GDP and population Lowy Institute The most noteworthy of these aspects included the quest for a foreign policy oriented toward defending human rights, democracy, the environment, and the fight against corruption.

Furthermore, the strategy proposed a more vigorous participation in the United Nations, including the possibility of involvement in multilateral military action, and an intensification of the relationship between Mexico and the United States, focusing on the defense of Mexican migrants in the territory of the latter. However, certain significant controversies remain unresolved until today: first, the way in which foreign policy is synchronized with domestic policy; second, the way in which doctrinal elements overwhelmingly cautious and conservative are reconciled with more open, modernizing contemporary trends related to new issues on the global agenda.

In retrospect, this produced a lack of consistency in approaching governments such as those of Pinochet in Chile, Franco in Spain, and Castro in Cuba. Public and cultural diplomacy, founded on a communicative environment of electronic networks, are unquestionably the pillars for achieving Mexican foreign policy objectives worldwide.

They provide the basis for image creation and communicational representation in public diplomacy, and identity management and discursive representation for cultural diplomacy Villanueva , Both types of diplomacy have evolved in practice, but also in theory—for example, today public diplomacy is understood as an activity that is not the exclusive purview of states, and which therefore reflects diverse interests of a broader range of nongovernmental actors Rubio , Mexico has a long tradition of cultural diplomacy, with a specialized department set aside for this purpose since , with its own program of resources and strategies.

However, better interinstitutional relationships will be needed if culture is to be projected not only in physical but also digital spaces. In the public diplomacy sphere, the Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs has shown a growing interest in participating in the digital space as a means to reach foreign audiences. Participation in this new public space did not come about as a result of institutional action, but rather because of the actions of one particularly disruptive Mexican diplomat. Of course, opening an account on a digital platform is not an achievement in itself.

Finally, it must be said that the Mexican government is aware of the importance of the technological shift and its implications for development in a wide range of human and social activities, including diplomacy. Within the framework of the meeting, a special session was held on artificial intelligence, promoted mainly by Dr.

This academic believes that Mexico must bring about greater change to its economic model, considering the speed of technological change and the globalized world environment where knowledge, connectivity, supply chains, financial flows, automatization and digitalization are of key importance. We take this as a positive trend and would welcome further discussions on the digital agenda.

Importantly, we claim that a fully functioning digital and analytical infrastructure is needed to provide diplomats with technical and analytical resources to reach a better understanding of current trends among foreign audiences. For example, developing skills in using Big Data could be a valuable complement in preparing communication strategies that are aligned with national interests, but also favor language that is accessible to their target audiences.

Mexican Foreign Policy and Diplomacy: From Defensive Tradition to Incomplete Modernity

As a democratic regime, Mexico is still in a process of consolidation. Questions regarding foreign policy and diplomacy have been addressed thanks to this process. While it is the Office of the President of the Republic that is in charge of directing Mexican foreign policy, a system of checks and balances also exists.

19. American Empire

For example, the Senate is responsible for analyzing foreign policy and approving treaties and conventions, as well as for ratifying the nominations for certain positions in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. This system of checks and balances could be further strengthened if there was a mechanism whereby the Senate was not only able to ratify Ambassadors and Consuls General, but also to evaluate their performance in terms of their proposals and actions during their tenures. That said, it is also true that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs submits annual reports and also provides spaces for accountability regarding the use of public resources using budgetary indicators for its programs.

Another way in which the process of democratization has permeated Mexican foreign policy is through citizen involvement. Of particular note is the inclusion of representatives from civil society in Mexican delegations, or the active promotion of their involvement in international and regional organizations. Along these same lines, Rebecka Villanueva Ulfgard , , has shown that foreign policy is no longer seen as the exclusive purview of the Mexican president, as it has become transformed through pressure by nonstate actors and transnational dynamics in multilateral negotiations producing changes to communication, which are challenging traditional notions of public diplomacy.

It must be mentioned that for many decades, Mexican foreign policy has been executed by foreign ministry staffed almost entirely by men. Important positions in her support team were filled by prominent women such as Olga Pellicer and Carmen Moreno Green , Please subscribe or login to access full text content. If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code. For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs , and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.

All Rights Reserved. Personal use only; commercial use is strictly prohibited for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of International Studies. Publications Pages Publications Pages. Oxford Research Encyclopedias International Studies.

Search within subject: Select The Future of Foreign Policy Analysis. Read More. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Growth, Cities, and Immigration: Crash Course US History #25

Erikson, R. Fearon, J. American Political Science Revie , 88, — Fordham, B. Foyle, D. New York: Columbia University Press. Garrison ed. International Journal of Public Opinion Research 16, — Renshon and P. Suedfeld eds. New York: Routledge.

Recommended For You

Furia, P. International Studies Quarterly 50, — Gartner, S. Journal of Politics 62, — Gaubatz, K. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Geer, J.

Criticism of United States foreign policy

Gelpi, C. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Gerber, T. Political Science Quarterly , 39— Gilboa, E. Political Communication 22, 27— Gowa, J. Graham, T. Deese ed. New York: St. Grossman, G. Hallin, D. Berkeley: University of California Press. Haney, P. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Hartley, T. American Political Science Review 86, — Heith, D. Herrmann, R. International Studies Quarterly 45, Hersman, R. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Hinckley, R. New York: Lexington Books. Hinich, J.

Holsti, O. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Journal of Conflict Resolution 32, — Hunt, W. Hurwitz, J. American Political Science Review 81, — Isernia, P. Journal of Conflict Resolution 46, — Jacobs, L. American Political Science Review 99, — Jakobsen, P. Journal of Peace Research 33 2 , — Journal of Peace Research 37 2 , — James, P.

Journal of Politics 56, — Jenkins-Smith, H. Jentleson, B. International Studies Quarterly 36, 49— Karol, D. Journal of Politics 69, — Kennan, G. New York Times , Oct. Key, V. New York: Knopf. Klarevas, L. International Studies Perspectives 3, — Knecht, T.

Knopf, J. Journal of Conflict Resolution 42, — Koch, M. Journal of Conflict Resolution 49, — Kohut, A. Aspen, CO: Aspen Institute. Kugler, J. International Interactions 23, 3—4, — Kull, S. Patrick and S. Forman eds. Multilateralism and US Foreign Policy. Boulder: Lynne Rienner. Larson, E.

Santa Monica, CA: Rand. Lippmann, W. Livingston, S. Political Communication 12, — Lord, K.


  1. Constructing US Foreign Policy: The Curious Case of Cuba - David Bernell - Google книги?
  2. The Constitutional Turn in International Relations Theory: Do aspects of constitutionalism require more attention from IR scholars? If yes, why? And what ... and the conceptual innovation for this turn??
  3. From the Amazon to Mars: In Four Short Stories!

Manza, J. Mathews, J. Washington Post , Mar. Mearsheimer, J. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Meernik, J. International Studies Quarterly 38, — Foreign Policy Analysis 4, — Milbrath, L. Monroe, A. American Politics Quarterly 7, 3— Mueller, J. New York: Wiley. Nacos, B. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. Natsios, A. Rotberg and T. Weiss eds. Cambridge: World Peace Foundation, pp. Ostrom, C. American Political Science Review 80, — Page, B. Parker, S. Public Opinion Quarterly , 59, — Pickering, J. International Studies Quarterly 49, 23— Powlick, P. Mershon International Studies Review 42, 29— Quandt, W.

Political Science Quarterly , — Richards, D. Journal of Conflict Resolution 37, — Ripley, R. Ripley and J. Lindsay eds. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. Risse-Kappen, T. World Politics 43, — Robinson, P. Critical Studies in Media Communication 22, —9. Rosenau, J. New York: Random House. Rottinghaus, B.

Emergence of Foreign Policy | International Studies Quarterly | Oxford Academic

Public Opinion Quarterly 7, — Rubenzer, T. Russett, B.