- 19. American Empire
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- Emergence of Foreign Policy | International Studies Quarterly | Oxford Academic
These historical foreign policy doctrines evolved through their principles, which became raised to constitutional status on May 11, The path toward the institutionalization of foreign policy has followed that of the strengthening of the Mexican state and its importance both regionally in Latin America and the global arena. This event in the history of Mexican diplomacy continues to be cited as evidence of Mexican leadership in the region.
The foundations of Mexican foreign policy invoke international law and multilateralism as mainstays for integration into international society, using peace and disarmament as spearheads for action, while also promoting activism and solidarity around issues concerning the developing world, defending the economic rights and responsibilities of states and, unquestionably, using cultural diplomacy to promote understanding among nations.
In the next section, we dig deeper into this argument. It should be said from the start: we consider it difficult to envision a Mexican foreign policy that is fully integrated into the third wave of modernity for our open, globalized world and its multiplicity of different types of diplomacy. Nevertheless, it is important to highlight some trends that point in the direction of building a more liberal, central role for Mexico in a clearly globalized, interconnected world. In addition, we must not forget that Mexico has shown great commitment to achieving the Millennium Development Goals and subsequently the Agenda for Sustainable Development.
The contrasts of this new vision with traditional Mexican foreign policy are explored below, based on our epistemological proposal underpinning the analysis of how a modern foreign policy is shaped, and how modernity is articulated in diplomatic practice. Every six years, each new presidential administration issues a National Plan for Development NPD , which lists concrete goals and objectives for Mexican foreign policy. Nonetheless, there are persistent obstacles to achieving a greater projection of Mexican diplomacy and the promotion of national interests in international relations, one of them being the budget and staff size of the MFS.
The small size of its diplomatic corps prevents the Mexican government from responding quickly to contemporary international challenges. On one hand, the budget assigned to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has remained virtually unchanged for several years. On the other, despite a slight increase in the number of Mexican diplomatic posts in , the number of MFS staff has remained almost static since , at less than 1, members.
According to the U. Census Bureau, the population of Mexican origin increased from This places it behind countries such as South Korea and Turkey which, along with Mexico, are considered emerging countries and participate in a number of international dialogue initiatives such as the MIKTA comprising Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea, Turkey, and Australia. It must also be noted that, as seen in Table 1 , Turkey is ranked fourth with representations abroad, despite falling behind Mexico in terms of both gross domestic product GDP and population Lowy Institute The most noteworthy of these aspects included the quest for a foreign policy oriented toward defending human rights, democracy, the environment, and the fight against corruption.
Furthermore, the strategy proposed a more vigorous participation in the United Nations, including the possibility of involvement in multilateral military action, and an intensification of the relationship between Mexico and the United States, focusing on the defense of Mexican migrants in the territory of the latter. However, certain significant controversies remain unresolved until today: first, the way in which foreign policy is synchronized with domestic policy; second, the way in which doctrinal elements overwhelmingly cautious and conservative are reconciled with more open, modernizing contemporary trends related to new issues on the global agenda.
In retrospect, this produced a lack of consistency in approaching governments such as those of Pinochet in Chile, Franco in Spain, and Castro in Cuba. Public and cultural diplomacy, founded on a communicative environment of electronic networks, are unquestionably the pillars for achieving Mexican foreign policy objectives worldwide.
They provide the basis for image creation and communicational representation in public diplomacy, and identity management and discursive representation for cultural diplomacy Villanueva , Both types of diplomacy have evolved in practice, but also in theory—for example, today public diplomacy is understood as an activity that is not the exclusive purview of states, and which therefore reflects diverse interests of a broader range of nongovernmental actors Rubio , Mexico has a long tradition of cultural diplomacy, with a specialized department set aside for this purpose since , with its own program of resources and strategies.
However, better interinstitutional relationships will be needed if culture is to be projected not only in physical but also digital spaces. In the public diplomacy sphere, the Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs has shown a growing interest in participating in the digital space as a means to reach foreign audiences. Participation in this new public space did not come about as a result of institutional action, but rather because of the actions of one particularly disruptive Mexican diplomat. Of course, opening an account on a digital platform is not an achievement in itself.
Finally, it must be said that the Mexican government is aware of the importance of the technological shift and its implications for development in a wide range of human and social activities, including diplomacy. Within the framework of the meeting, a special session was held on artificial intelligence, promoted mainly by Dr.
This academic believes that Mexico must bring about greater change to its economic model, considering the speed of technological change and the globalized world environment where knowledge, connectivity, supply chains, financial flows, automatization and digitalization are of key importance. We take this as a positive trend and would welcome further discussions on the digital agenda.
Importantly, we claim that a fully functioning digital and analytical infrastructure is needed to provide diplomats with technical and analytical resources to reach a better understanding of current trends among foreign audiences. For example, developing skills in using Big Data could be a valuable complement in preparing communication strategies that are aligned with national interests, but also favor language that is accessible to their target audiences.
As a democratic regime, Mexico is still in a process of consolidation. Questions regarding foreign policy and diplomacy have been addressed thanks to this process. While it is the Office of the President of the Republic that is in charge of directing Mexican foreign policy, a system of checks and balances also exists.
19. American Empire
For example, the Senate is responsible for analyzing foreign policy and approving treaties and conventions, as well as for ratifying the nominations for certain positions in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. This system of checks and balances could be further strengthened if there was a mechanism whereby the Senate was not only able to ratify Ambassadors and Consuls General, but also to evaluate their performance in terms of their proposals and actions during their tenures. That said, it is also true that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs submits annual reports and also provides spaces for accountability regarding the use of public resources using budgetary indicators for its programs.
Another way in which the process of democratization has permeated Mexican foreign policy is through citizen involvement. Of particular note is the inclusion of representatives from civil society in Mexican delegations, or the active promotion of their involvement in international and regional organizations. Along these same lines, Rebecka Villanueva Ulfgard , , has shown that foreign policy is no longer seen as the exclusive purview of the Mexican president, as it has become transformed through pressure by nonstate actors and transnational dynamics in multilateral negotiations producing changes to communication, which are challenging traditional notions of public diplomacy.
It must be mentioned that for many decades, Mexican foreign policy has been executed by foreign ministry staffed almost entirely by men. Important positions in her support team were filled by prominent women such as Olga Pellicer and Carmen Moreno Green , Please subscribe or login to access full text content. If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code. For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs , and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.
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