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Seven Hilden, Heb. Im HypnoBirthing- Hilden, Heb. Susanne Winkler, C. Sa Neuss-Innenstadt, fam. ET, Elternaum Dormagen, Gruppenraum, Station 1C, f. Sa Dormagen, Heb. Paare, m. Das hilft dir, selbstbestimmt Entscheidungen rund um die Geburt zu treffen. Besichtigung Wuppertal Geburtshaus Oase Barmen e.
Kleinkinderspielgruppe lGeburtshaus Wuppertal e. Gymnastik f. Eltern-Kind-Kurse, Angebote f. Deine Hebammenpraxis in Ratingen. Nachsorge, Wochenbettbetreuung, Stillbera- tung, Hebammensprechstd. Hebammenpraxis Sommer, Neuss-Uedesheim, Allmende 65 Ergo-Fitness i. Die intensive www. Kinder J. Akupunktur Lampe, D. Garcia-Pies, Th. Kroll u. Paare, Wochenend-Intensiv-Kurse, Yoga f. Babymassage m. Ambulanz: Laktationsberaterin Fr. Fleischhauer; Angebote: Geburtsvorbereitung, geburtsvorb.
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Elisabeth, Grevenbroich, Von-Werth-Str. Schwangerschaft: Anm. Hundeck Tel. Babymassage, Yoga, geburtsvorbereitende Akupunktur schwangerenvorsorge ab der Eingangshalle AKH , Infoabd. Schwangere, Geschwisterkurs, Walking f. Kinderwagen, optimistisch Stress meistern f. Mo , Geburtsplanungssprechstd. Geburt auch bei Beckenend- lage u. Kinderarztbetreu- ung inkl. Paare, Gymnastik f. Babyschwimmen, Stillgruppe u. Akupunktur, Geburtsvorbereitungskurse, Nachsorgehebammen, Hebammensprechstd.
Still- u. Mo u. Mo Infoabend m. Information und Anmeldung unter www. Arzt der Geburtshilfe D. Sa Baby Kochs, Breite Str. SSW Stillberatung Sa Kaiserswerther Fam. Sa Kath. So Geburtshaus Wuppertal, Hainstr. Sa Geburtshaus Wuppertal, Hainstr. Eltern-Kind Coach N.
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Allergieprophylaxe, auch Hausbesuche, D. Stillgruppe Babys Mon. Mi Sana Krhs. Benrath, Urdenbacher Allee 83, Station 5b, Still- u. Laktationsberatung, E. Fleischhauer Benrath, Urdenbacher Allee 83, Station 5b; 24 Std. Treffen, m. Wagner Gruppe Mi Hilden, Heb. Stillzeit Stessen, Bachstr. Mi Stadtmitte, efa, Hohenzollernstr. Baby Do Derendorf, efa-Stadtteiltreff, Rather Str. Babymassage Fr Stadtmitte, efa, Hohenzollernstr.
Di Stadtmitte, efa, Hohenzollernstr. Neufindung Baby, fortl. Training f. Mama nach der Geburt Schulenburg Mo buggyFit, Luisenstr. Dein Beckenboden, KK-Zuz. Mo Friedrichstadt, Mama macht Mo Heb. Aerial-Yoga postnatal Mo O. Mo Elt. Mi Heb. Power-Yoga Di Heb. Yoga basis Di buggyFit, Luisenstr. Mi Friedrichstadt, Mama macht Mi O.
Dein Beckenboden m. Baby, KK-Zuz. Do Friedrichstadt, Mama macht Do O. Coach RB Kurs, Info www. Mi YogaKitchen, Comeniusstr. Kinesiotaping, spez. Rectusdiastasen Behandlung, D. Bielfeld YogaKitchen, Comeniusstr. Baby, N. Test: Gerresheim, Sana Krhs. Do Heb. Liethmann Do Kind Protect Wetterschutzcreme Kind Di FiZ e. Baby, A. Recaro Grimm Zero. Mi Geburtshaus Wuppertal, Hainstr. Fr Kath. Baby Geburtshaus Wuppertal, Hainstr. Spezial Schinnerling Bethesda Krhs. Alberts-Hillinger Do Bethesda Krhs.
Schinnerling Yoga Do Haan, Majas Beweg. Di Ratingen, Kath. Di Ratingen, Ev. Baby, C. Di Haan, Majas Beweg. Fitness Mo Ratingen, Kath. Di Ratingen-Lintorf, Heb. Kind, S. Do Ratingen-Lintorf, Heb. Josefs Krhs, Elt. Kind, J. Bliss Langenfeld, St. Mo Neuss, Lukaskrankenhaus, Hs. ET, Elternraum, m. Babymassage, 8x Di Neuss, Lukaskrankenhaus, Hs. Babymassage, 7x Dossow Fr Neuss-Innenstadt, fam. ET, Elternraum, am Morgen Do Neuss-Grimlinghs. Trim ester Do Dormagen, Heb. Trim Am Ende 21 22 ester Jetzt hat sich ist das Wie wa 37 38 39 40 mit de r das noch Muskeln t.
Er best aus eine Baby etwa Ei warten. Die Und du ein. Schwange plimente. Do Kreiskrhs. Dormagen, Gruppenraum, Station 1C; 7x, m. Demnach erin vier Woc Die werd 40 Woc hen des l. Babymassage, 6x t im Eilei uchtung ter 3. Trimes unteweg s ter statt. Schon Du wills t rbrie noch meh fe 9 10 teilungen gibt es die erste 8 40 und 2. Trimes ter 4. Und Mo,Do Neuss, Heb. Baby, m. Alle lebens meisten Zeit. Wichti erst aufkom sie auf Partys verzichten, es dabei? Das hilft ihr gemein Untersuchung darauf Drinks: www.
Dein werden. Baby bis 5 Mon. Mo-So Schlafproblemen Eltern-Kind Coach N. Schlafberatung u. Referenzen s. Website, M. Holtschlag Mo-So Do bis 6 Mon. Mo bis 6 Mon. Genussbaden, nur f. Respekt, sanft, liebevoll, innig Baby-Massage, M. Holtschlag Di ab 2 Mon. So ab 2 Mon. Di Friedrichstadt, Mama macht Sa ab 6 Wo. Di actiondates NordicBaby, Raum Yogakitchen, 8x Respekt Mo bis 5 Mon. Benrath, Urdenbacher Allee 83, M. Bernat Kaiserschnittbabys Fr Ratingen, Kath.
Degner-Lapus ab 6 Wo. Di bis 4 Mon. Mi ab 5 Wo. Ludwig Fr ab 6 Wo. Stjepanovic Kolikmassage Mi Dormagen, Heb. Babys Lebenswoche Fr Mon. Koliken, S. Bombek ET, Elternraum Mo Eltern Start bis 1 J. Mo Spiele f. Sinne bis 1 J. Di ElBa Gruppe 6 Wo. Di Eltern Start bis 1 J. Mi ElBa Gruppe 6 Wo. Mi Eltern Start bis 1 J. Wir zeigen Dir, wo Mi Spiele f. Unsere Do Eltern Start bis 1 J. Spiele f. Fr Eltern Start bis 1 J. ElBa Gruppe 6 Wo. Fr Spiele f.
Treff bis 1 J. Babygymnastik Baby Kochs, Breite Str. Mo Das erste Lebensjahr, das zweite u. Do Das erste Lebensjahr, das zweite u. Fr Das erste Lebensjahr, das zweite u. Di Spielend Zusammen Wachsen ab 12 Wo. PEKiP, Pikler etc. Lernen nach Montessori ab 1 J. Schreibabys u. Kleinkinder Mo ElBa Gruppen 6 Wo. Kiefer Di ElBa Gruppen 6 Wo. Di Das erste Lebensjahr,das zweite u.
Mi ElBa Gruppen 6 Wo. Do ElBa Gruppen 6 Wo. ElBa Gruppen 6 Wo. Fr ElBa Gruppen 6 Wo. Fr Die Auszeit bis 1 J. Kinderblick Mini ab 6 Wo. Lebensjahr m. Treff ab 3 Mon. Altersstufen Bewegen, N. Mo Gut durch das 1. Lebensjahr Kaiserswerther Fam. Di Das erste Lebensjahr, das zweite u.
Information Rather Kreuzweg 43 Mi Das erste Lebensjahr, das zweite u. Eltern, Fr. Bischoff Gerade in den ersten Lebensjahren Viele Sternschnuppe, Ronsdorfer Str. Diese Erfahrung musste auch Marina Sie entschloss sich kurzerhand, Momen- Di Elternstart NRW im 1. Pfarrheim St. Antonius, tan bietet kyddo.
Mi Elternstart NRW im 1. Do Elternstart NRW im 1. Der Fokus Odenkirchener Str. Ob Fr Wahrnehmen, spielen, bewegen ab 8 Wo. Mi Wahrnehmen, spielen, bewegen ab 8 Wo. Marina schafft mit ihrer Di Das 1. Mi SpielRaum n. Do SpielRaum n. Fr Fabel-Kurs Wuppertal, Fabel u. Stratmann-Stock Vogl-Bergmann Das 1. Bujak Vogl-Bergmann Werner-Dahlhaus Werner Do Das 1. Di vorm. Mi Begleitung im ersten Lebensjahr Ratingen, Kath. FBW, Ev. Fr vorm. Fr Fabel - Spiel u. Bewegung ab 4 Mon. Mo Fabel II - Spiel u.
Bewegung ab 6 Mon. Germund Mi Fabel - Spiel u. Wewer Mo Ekip Mon. Mazzucca Mo Eltern-Baby-Gruppe im 1. Zentr f. Familienbildung, Koniferenstr. Mo Babynest - Leichter Start m. Kind Neuss-Innenstadt, fam. Mo Babyclub Neuss, Ev. Di Babynest - Leichter Start m. Kind Grevenbr. Baby Grevenbr. Mi Babyclub 6 Wo. Neuen Mi Babyclub - 1. Lebensjahr Uedesheim,Ev. Mi Babynest - Leichter Start m. Lebensjahr Uedesheim, Ev. Mi Eltern-Baby-Gruppe im 1. Do Eltern-Baby-Gruppe im 1. Baby Neuss-Hoisten, fam. Fr Eltern-Baby-Gruppe im 1. Familienbildung, Trinitatiskirche, Koniferenstr. Fr Babynest - Leichter Start m.
Kind Dormagen-Innenstadt, fam. Familienbildung, Einsteinstr. Rasmussen Familienbildung, Johanneskirche, Novesiastr. Fr Baby Fun Heb. Dormagen, Wilhelm-Zaun-Str. Mo Baby Fun Heb. Platz d. Timm Sinne Mon. Beyer Kurs Mi Babyschwimmen Mon. Do Babyschwimmen Mon. Mi Eltern-Kind-Schwimmen 4 Mon. Fr Eltern-Kind-Schwimmen 4 Mon. Sa Eltern-Kind-Schwimmen 4 Mon.
So Kleinkindschwimmen J. Manstein, Got Manstein, Got-Got So Babyschwimmen Mon. Brabender, Got Do Kleinkindschwimmen J. Do Eltern-Kind-Schwimmen J. Do Eltern-Kind-Schwimmen Mon. Sa Eltern-Kind-Schwimmen J. Paschen Sa Babyschwimmen J. Gerigk, UnRa So Mutter-Kind-Schwimmen J. Mi Kleinkindschwimmen J. Mo Babyschwimmen Mon. Wingen, UnRa Mo Babyschwimmen J. Mo Kleinkindschwimmen J.
Mi Kleinkindschwimmen J, U. Sa Eltern-Kind-Schwimmen Mon. Sa Eltern-Kind-Schwimmen ,5 J. Sa Babyschwimmen Mon. Strzelecki, Ger Sa Kleinkindschwimmen J. Strzelecki, G Gerigk, Ger Di Kleinkindschwimmen J. Fr Babyschwimmen ab 4 Mon. Morita Fr Eltern-Kind ab 10 Mon. Babys, A. Sa Kinderschwimmen J. Bozmann Sa Familienschwimmen ab 4 Mon. Sonnenschein Sankt Josef, Bergstr.
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Ferien FBW, Schwimmbad H. Mo Babyschwimmen ab 13 Mon. April Mo Aqua-Family Bambini J. Di Babyschwimmen Mon. Fr Babyschwimmen Mon. Fr Babyschwimmen ab 13 Mon. Sa Aqua-Family Bambini J. Sa Aqua-Family Starter J. Sa Spieler. Sa Aqua-Family Fortgeschrittene J. Mo Kleinkinderschwimmen Mon. So Babyschwimmen ab 13 Mon. Bewegungen sind ein Leichtes, dein Baby kann tauchen und planschen. Mit oder ohne Hilfsmittel losgeplanscht, wird viel Wert auf Entspannung gelegt und Freude am Nass vermittelt. Wir bieten Abenteuer zudem Sonntagskurse an. Unsere Kursleiter, die von der www.
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Mamafitness, Spiel- und Musikgruppen. Dormagen, KKH Dormagen Babyschwimmen 3 Mon. Kurse Kleinkinderschwimmen J. Kleinkinderschwimmen 2 J. Dadurch Bewegungsspiele ab 1,5 J.
Bewegungsspiele ab 1,5 J. Grundhaltungen Di Ein un- Bewegung, Spiel u. Die Wichtigkeit eines erhol- Bewegung, Spiel u. Erler: Bewegung, Spiel u. Spiel - Schwerpunkt Bewegung J. Bosbach Laufkinder Hengstenberg- u. Mo-Fr Eltern, versch. Kleinsten Minis Spiel - Schwerpunkt Bewegung ab 1 J. Immigrather Str. Plus, Potsdamer Str. Kinderturnen J. Bewegung J. Maria Rosenkranz - Montessori-Kinderhaus, Ev.
Kita, Leichlinger Str. Erleben ab 1,5 J. Menschen im Zentr. Spiel J. Spiel m. Mi,Fr Babykurs Mon. Spindler Spielgruppe J. Shevyakova Kontaktgruppe J. Denn Spanische Spielgruppe J. Friedrichstadt, Jahnstr. Wir helfen dir, dich bei diesen Spiel- u. Spiel- u. Krabbelgruppe Bilk, Ev. Lutherkirche, Kopernikusstr. Vielleicht wird dann Borsigstr. Ferien jed. Auferstehungskirche, Arnulfstr.
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Mi Mi Philippuskirche, Gem. Remigius, Pastoratsweg Mi Eltern Mo-Fr Jonakirche, Niederrheinstr. Pauluskirche, Gem. Kindern, Fr. Thomaskirche, E.
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Krabbelgruppe J. Mit Integrative Spielgruppe 1, J. Spielgruppe 1, J. Familientreff Friedrichstadt: Tel. Kontaktgruppe aller Kulturen Mon. Eltern Di Anbetungskirche, Gem. Wang Mo Di-Do If the above-noted revisions had been made with this in mind, then any inclusion of such a contentious passage from Marx might well, after his mixed treatment at the hands of the Third International, have looked imprudent by this time. Here, he appears to be trying to do something similar in the case of epic discontinuity. Each represents a complex synthesizing of what Brecht by now held to be a false dichotomy.
The relationship between the one and its counterpart has beeen transposed onto a dialectical plane, inasmuch as the behavior being displayed onstage is designed first to elicit an antithetical response from the ideal audience of Epic Theater; but then, the ideal audience response will be to transcend such a simple antithesis. As his letter to Comrade M. His interest is now more decidedly in highlighting the enjoyment that comes with learning. Weigel and P.
For details see Kebir Nevertheless, the charge of barbarism does not have to represent an unequivocally hostile gesture towards all that Stanislavsky represents. For the one is mainly confined to structural features, while the other is concerned with performance concepts. That crucial effect is lost in all but the GBA edition. Nevertheless, it behaves as though it ought to be one. Obviously, Epic Theater could not have remained a parallel, rather than contrastive, point of reference at this late phase of the argument if over-specific illustrations from opera had been included.
By remaining at the level of principles Brecht can still maintain the dominant comparison in the notes between Epic Theater and Epic Opera. Similarly, it links the function of gesture and stage-props and the way in which the singer and the music draw attention to anti-illusionistic aspects of performance and adopt a stance to what is being displayed.
By the end of the section, however, it almost looks as if the converse is happening. A token reactionary or otherwise unacceptable view is expressed or mimicked so as to allow the main voice to elaborate the correct position. Here, the idea that audiences used to traditional opera might feel that it is in jeopardy becomes a pretext, not so much for a direct response as for a cameo caricature of demeaning audience behavior. Kann man sie veranlassen, ihre Zigarren herauszuziehen?
Whatever members of the above kind of audience do or whatever they expect from opera, they must be replaced. In order to show, once more ex negativo, what is the wrong way to conjure up the new audience, the notes launch into a final barbed attack on formal and thematic innovation for its own sake a diatribe substantially expanded for Versuche 2, no doubt because it was now less counterproductive to imply specific targets than it might have been in Musik und Gesellschaft. The flurry of avant-garde experiments evoked at the beginning of the notes is now seen as merely marking time.
The Mahagonny notes conclude by looking in both directions at once. This is coupled with an optimistic picture of an embryonic Marxist theater designed to attack the base. As Kobel has pointed out, Brecht argues as if the audience of Aristotelian theater took no political views to the theater with them Kobel , But the real problem in the early s was that a large portion of potential theater audiences was of the radical political right.
His situation in exile from [. And this [. Other factors played a part in this radical change of orientation. If the impressive corpus of theoretical writings from the Scandinavian period is circumspect about political assumptions and long-term goals, and might at times appear to be laying Brecht open to the charge of showing more concern for artistic than political radicalism, there was one further key reason for this shift of emphasis: the conditions imposed on Brecht by his countries of asylum.
And while he usually refused to comply, the shadow of such an injunction nevertheless exercized a distorting effect on his theoretical writings during the Scandinavian years and in US exile. The assertion has by no means been laid to rest. Hier zeigte sich klar und berechnet Brechts Unterscheidung zwischen Wesentlichem und Unwesentlichem. As a consequence, he preferred to concentrate his polemics closer to home: mainly on various forms of ill-conceived pseudo-avant-garde experimentation.
In New York, however, he suddenly found himself on the receiving end of a salutary lesson, experiencing at first hand the hold the drama of manipulated empathy continued to exercise on large sections of the contemporary theater world. The bulk of the rest attempt 5 to pinpoint the lessons to be learnt from the Theatre Union adaptation. Things started to go wrong almost from the outset.
Dennoch reagierte der Apparat durchaus als ein Apparat zur Herstellung von Rauschwirkungen. A campaign of self-promotion had also been set in motion. Ground was eventually yielded on both sides, but the result was a hybrid that satisfied no one. As part of a — by then typical — learning-from-defeat strategy, Brecht subjected these reviews to a critique.
Legally preto have the Theatre Union stage his work should have been warning enough. See Wolf , — While engaged in a massive theoretical rethink, Brecht at least had the advantage of knowing that Die Mutter had recently been performed according to rigorous epic principles back in Denmark.
The Danish amateurs, Berlau records, had no difficulty in depicting working-class characters; and the esprit de corps engendered by collective work on the play was so contagious that some of the cast went off to fight in the International Brigade in the Spanish Civil War. Brecht was nevertheless unable to take comfort from the knowledge that the New York failure was compensated for by a Danish production.
What the Theatre Union fiasco had brought to his attention demanded a more thorough-going response than any faithful production could ever offer. His eyes had been been opened to the fact that he would need to clarify his theoretical position and perhaps even compromise if he was to make an impact in America. That could be either the cause or merely a side-effect of more fundamental factors. But Stanislavsky and his fellow-artists at MAT were obviously increasing their hold on contemporary drama. He was quick to deduce that this new wave offered the twin attractions of methodically systematized rehearsal and performance techniques and a political rationale for the exploitation of feeling in left-wing theater: Das System Stanislawskis ist ein Fortschritt schon deswegen, weil es ein System ist.
Markov or V. If the exercise was also to be of practical value, Brecht realized, Epic Theater would need to learn from an analysis of what the Stanislavskians regarded as distractions from total identification GBA, — What they wished to avoid was what Epic Theater needed to exploit for distancing purposes. Although fundamentally opposed to the ideas and techniques that Stanislavsky and his followers promoted, Brecht clearly admired the way the Stanislavsky method was documented in a series of authoritative publications, thus identifying itself as a coherent and meticulously explained performance theory.
It also had heuristic value for his own theoretical self-understanding. Nor does Brecht engage with the fact that Aristotelian catharsis is less central to the Stanislavskian conception of dramatic effect than is being implied. At the same time that he was studying Stanislavsky, Brecht embarked on a substantial reformulation of Epic Theater.
Die bekannte Forderung der drei Einheiten betrachten wir nicht als diesen Hauptpunkt, sie wird vom Aristoteles auch gar nicht erhoben, wie die neuere Forschung festgestellt hat. It was little more than a Pyrrhic victory for Brecht to have to introduce himself to a sophisticated Theatre Workshop readership with, of all things, thoughts about Die Dreigroschenoper.
And it could only have been something of an indignity to find himself figuring in New Theatres for Old alongside such a galaxy of competing forms of twentieth-century theater in a compendious work whose author was by all accounts largely sympathetic towards the theater of identification.
Das Theater eines wissenschaftlichen Zeitalters wird zum wissenschaftlichen Theater. GBA, Brecht was of course conscious of the need to explain the guiding concepts behind his theater to new audiences in the English-speaking world. Sometimes key terms e. As such a compromise implies, Brecht was trying to launch a fresh series of unfamiliar and sometimes unhelpfully neologistic terms within a relatively short period. The majority of these pieces date from Reiches, for the same journal. From —33, when Desmond MacCarthy had been the editor of what was then simply entitled Life and Letters, the London monthly retained a strong interest in contemporary drama.
Brecht begins with a more succinct statement of purpose than can be found in any of the theoretical writings hitherto: Im nachfolgenden soll kurz auf die Anwendung des Verfremdungseffekts in der alten chinesischen Schauspielkunst hingewiesen werden. Such moving back and forth between Asiatic acting conventions and contemporary Western theater involves more than rapid shifts in perspective.
The very choice of concepts an even more complicated feature in the English translation where there is no Brechtian German precedent to build on creates a clash between oriental practices and Western descriptive vocabulary. GBA, Such terminological hybridity loses some of its force in translation.
Die Diderot-Gesellschaft setzt sich die Aufgabe, [. Yet that is precisely what the essay appears to suggest. There may well have been an element of organized chance to the Moscow encounter with Mei Lan-fang. Diese Auffassung mag die Existenz einer Geschichte zugeben, aber es ist dennoch eine geschichtslose Auffassung. Yet it looks suspiciously as if Brecht had taken deliberate liberties with the material. Esta merely elopes, only to be abandoned on becoming pregnant, while Clyde leaves when suspected of being an accomplice to a road accident.
And he may have had good reasons for doing so. Ist es dazu imstande? Was es hier, als Familienmitglied, gelernt hat, wird ihm das helfen, den Unterhalt zu verdienen? Sind sie eine Last geworden oder geblieben? Ist das so bei allen Familien? War das immer so? Ist das der Lauf der Welt, der nicht zu beeinflussende? Gilt hier dieser Satz? Taten sie es zu allen Zeiten? Wenn ja, wenn es etwas Biologisches ist, geschieht es immer in der gleichen Weise, aus demselben Grunde, mit den gleichen Folgen?
Das kann nur erreicht werden, wenn der V-Effekt hervorgebracht wird. The tone is guardedly reformist rather than stridently revolutionary. And there are often times when his need to measure himself against the Stanislavsky of My Life in Art had a distorting effect on the scope of the dramaturgical writings. This was hardly the case, however, with his second major theoretical work of the late s. Encouraged by the response, Brecht repeated it the following year before a student audience in Helsinki.
That is, it was a bridge between the two innovative accounts of acting: relating to the Chinese theater and to Epic Theater. One finds a clearer sense of teleology in the Stockholm lecture than in the essay on Chinese acting. While not being a matter of the difference between a scientific experiment and a literary one, this does suggest that Brecht is using the experiment metaphor to minimize the distinction between a seemingly objective process and an ideologically driven one. The Theater of the Scientific Age, as conceived by Brecht, is in part characterized by the fact that it turned to different academic disciplines from those favored by the Naturalists.
Given the two contexts of the lecture Sweden was studiously neutral and Finland feared the Soviet Union more than Nazi Germany , Brecht is obliged to signal his political premises obliquely. The crisis of contemporary theater Brecht posits was one of which he had considerable experience, as it involved the problematic relationship between entertainment and didacticism, empathy and critical distance. Wenn man auf die Hypnose verzichtete, an was konnte man appellieren? Die Haltung des Lear wird verfremdet, d. Although addressing audiences of amateur actors, it makes little of acting; indeed, in places it seems more fascinated by the potential of stage machinery.
Otto Nathan and Heinz Norden Bern, , Too much of the Stockholm lecture had been taken up with surveying modern European drama in general, leaving comparatively little space for Epic Theater. Brecht had always been fascinated by relationships of proportionality. Das Mitsprechen von Spielanweisungen und Kommentaren. One particular aspect of preparation stands out because it is evidence of a dialectical conception of acting a part. Er geht nach links vorn und nicht nach rechts hinten. On the contrary, the alternatives represent models of audience reaction. Die Frage hat ihn verfremdet, und das sollte sie.
Eine Verfremdung des Autos tritt ein, wenn wir schon lange einen modernen Wagen gefahren haben, nun eines der alten T-Modelle H. Fords fahren. GBA, —57 One might inquire why, in the case of the art-life parallel, Brecht offers such a large number of examples and why most of them are non-political. Again, circumstances may have obliged him to make estrangement seem less a matter of ideology than it really was, possibly because he would be more likely to gain acceptance in America if he came across as a man of the theater without extreme political views.
Theater models and models from our everyday world can be juxtaposed to suggest their potential for reciprocal illumination. It is not by chance that the sections of the appendix devoted to more sociopolitical ideas 16—19 are substantially longer than those explaining dramatic principles. Estrangement is presented by reference to what it is intended to combat, rather than how it works or in the context of its politically constructive function.
But the terms of the discussion are not really antithetical. It is an end. Despite earlier problems with the schematic expression of different kinds of theater by means of oppositional pairings, Brecht once more operates with a dominant contrast. The plural in this case probably means in general, in all the plays seen, but one cannot be sure whether identification with collectives is again being suggested. If a number of people are in the same predicament, it is theoretically feasible to identify with them as a collective.
But the other possibility — that the audience can identify with a situation — means little more than that some scenes in a play stimulate heightened emotional involvement of an illfocused kind. What follows involves an example which would have been read very differently by Brecht: Suppose a man, who believes that he has cause to be jealous about his wife, witnesses a performance of Othello. He will the more perfectly appreciate the situation, conduct and character of Othello, the more exactly the feelings and experiences of Othello coincide with his own — at least he ought to on the principle of concordance.
In point of fact, he will probably do anything but appreciate the play. In reality, the concordance will merely render him acutely conscious of his own jealousy; by a sudden reversal of perspective he will no longer see Othello apparently betrayed by Desdemona, but himself in an analogous situation with his own wife. This reversal of perspective is the consequence of the loss of Distance. But there is no obvious opposite phenomenon in his scheme. To do this, it is suggested, he will have to adopt an antagonistic attitude to the part he is playing, that is, one of critical distance.
That is to say, Brecht is really only concerned with the political implications of distancing in a certain kind of theater. He argues that there is no necessary connection between the two, although Brecht seems to assume that the one is a prerequisite of the other. Unter sozialem Gestus ist der mimische und gestische Ausdruck der gesellschaftlichen Beziehungen zu verstehen, in denen die Menschen einer bestimmten Epoche zueinander stehen. Das 37 See Schaefer , Grimm , Knopf , 15—60, and a, —, Fankhauser , 23—29, and Fischer , — Der Messingkauf, it could be argued, merely makes explicit what exile contexts at times obliged Brecht to treat with discretion.
Brecht hat die Verfremdung nicht erfunden. Likewise, the fact that a writer sporadically used a term prior to the time when he could have encountered it when used by a particular putative influence need not necessarily invalidate the possibility of his interest in the phenomenon being intensified by an idea that was received later.
After all, Brecht had written the script, and thus there was no real need to subject details to microscopic analysis to get across his general theoretical position. Der Schauspieler nun hat diesen Abstand zu den Ereignissen und Verhaltungsweisen, den der Historiker nimmt, zu den Ereignissen und Verhaltungsweisen der Jetztzeit zu nehmen. Unseres Erachtens und unserer Absicht nach waren die Praxis des epischen Theaters und sein ganzer Begriff keineswegs undialektisch, noch wird ein dialektisches Theater ohne das epische Element auskommen.
This new, more explicit emphasis on milieu gives a clearer focus to the device, since social and historical milieus demonstrably interact dialectically with the individual. Es steckt viel in ihm, was da entfaltet wurde und entfaltbar ist. Although Scandinavian and US exile restricted the range of available outlets, Brecht remained adept at placing flagship pieces in opinion-forming publications. In the Weimar years it might seem as if Brecht had merely used channels of communication open to any author in a modern, technologically advanced society.
Yet he did so shrewdly and often with panache. Whenever his contributions appeared in feuilleton surveys on topics of the moment, it was alongside the great names of the time. While still in Weimar Germany, Brecht was in the thick of things. That would not happen again until his final years in the GDR.
Exile, as far as his theoretical writings were concerned, was to some extent a period of consolidation and preparation for better times. The works looked at so far show how deceptive categorization on the basis of conventional genres can be. It would be difficult to find a satisfactory generic label for such a work. His letter to the Berliner Ensemble on the eve of their London visit GBA, soon found its way into the London theater program. By the s Taylorism or the Taylor System had become a byword for rationalized industrial efficiency in both the Western world and the Soviet Union.
See Midgley , —17 on some of the cultural influences of Taylorism. This enables him to transform an apparent eyewitness account into an elaborate, distanciating outline of the cultural and historical context for his own experiments. Even in such a seemingly simple instance, Brecht comes across as a master of the art of subverting pre-existing discourse formats.
One often finds Brecht over-scripting or in other ways orchestrating things to highlight his own position. In the case of the Cologne radio talk with Sternberg and Ihering, we saw the former having his lines mapped out for him on the basis of an already-published open letter, but now being assigned the task of presenting it as a thesis to which Brecht constructed a carefully formulated counter-position. One wonders how the other participants saw things! Even in the s, Brecht had tended to manipulate the other available discourse opportunities in unpredictable ways.
Verlangen diese Stoffe eine neue Form des Dramas und des Spiels? Although in the case of some writings the fictiveness is obvious, there are many others where it is not possible to make binding distinctions between authentic material real interviews subsequently transcribed, published answers to actual journalistic questionnaires, and bona fide open letters to specific newspapers and creative variations on the same sub-genres.
Yet even when real exchanges had taken place, they were often planned down to the last detail. One might think that if a genuine dialogue between specific, identified people had occurred on a particular occasion, it would be remarkable to find such extensive drafts for it. The equally important need to distinguish between real sent or unsent letters and fictive missives, not to mention the Briefgedicht, or to differentiate between real public addresses and the Anrede poem raises a series of further problems of categorization, especially in the case of putative addressees.
Yet it is possible that the actor who participates in the discussion never existed. Yet despite this token referentiality, the participants come across as invented. The participants are simply referred to as Kalle and Ziffel, names which sound as invented as the Mies and Meck in an earlier draft, Kries and Mies of another fragment from the same period GBA, — Early drafts give no names at all, and even in later ones, some speeches are still not yet allocated to either speaker. Brecht, of course, had other models for his use of the fictive letter as a vehicle for bringing theory to life.
It seems unlikely that Brecht sent a German letter poem to the American even though Odets was at the time married to the Austrian actress Luise Rainer. This popular sub-genre of Neue Sachlichkeit poetry had strong connections with the chanson and the cabaret Rollengedicht, genres where the convention was recognized as involving a fiction. In any case, the nominal addressees shared little or no common language with the author, and in one instance it was a collective. As this suggests, the primary audience or readership was not the ostensible addressee.
Instead, the two poems were part of a one-sided dialogue between a playwright and the theater-world at large. Admittedly, some of the poems associated with the Messingkauf complex were more private reminiscences or tributes7 than dramaturgically focused pieces. But this was not the only problem. Sometimes genre gives some clue to status. Nor does it appear to have been pinned on some backstage notice board or passed on to Ruth Berlau to communicate its substance in Danish to the addressees in question.
The Brecht Archive holds many letters either never sent or in some instances with no indication of an addressee. Brecht may have on occasion thought twice about sending a particularly aggressive missive. Some served the function of offering Brecht a safety valve, but beyond any use of the fictive letter as a private way of letting off steam or dealing with theoretical problems of the moment, one finds the more important function of rhetorical vehicle. The contrast between poetic diction and prose register in such cases signifies an ability to function as Olympian commentator on the immediate situation.
A theoretical statement made in a poem is not axiomatically more significant than one in prose. If some individual poems express points with particular clarity, lapidariness, or sophistication, this remains a matter of local accomplishment, not generic privileging. Nevertheless, one striking feature of the dramaturgical poems is their undoubted ability to apply fresh bold images to familiar abstract ideas. Ich sehe da nach vorn kommen Erdbeben. Die Erdbeben haben Geld in der Brusttasche. But most remain neglected. Few appeared in print during his lifetime, and their publishing fortunes since have been chequered.
A full inventory of the works in question can be found in Willett and Manheim —5 with each title annotated to indicate which had first appeared in Theaterarbeit and Versuche 14 and which not. To this I would merely add that some of the poems in d are also of considerable dramaturgical significance. According to the editorial principles set out in the notes to both volumes, the seven Versuche poems have the distinction of being authorized as Messingkauf poems by Brecht himself.
Poems that only appeared under that title in Theaterarbeit are accorded a different status, since strictly speaking, even if Brecht must have had a hand in this collective enterprise, the sole editors named on the title page are the Berliner Ensemble and Helene Weigel. Apart from such demarcation problems, one is also left with the paradox that none of the seven poems in the small Versuche 14 and GBA corpus is mentioned anywhere in the Messingkauf plans. The work exists in various versions incorporating numerous revisions, which suggests its importance for Brecht.
Yet there is one crucial difference. In the case of the Stanislavsky, Brecht was merely analysing the assumptions of his adversaries, but with little hope of converting them to his cause. This combination of didactic and conciliatory stance may explain why the poem was included in the Malik Gesammelte Werke, for Brecht could expect to encounter similar disputes with ideological allies in other countries during his continuing years of exile. In one sense, the failure to produce nuances that could be easily reflected in English does not matter; for what we have is a German poem, as far as we know not translated into English at the time, which, while seeming to speak to a very circumscribed American audience, reaches out generally to the kind of theater people the playwright wants to help to understand the methods and intentions behind Die Mutter.
The fact that we hear as much about the earlier Berlin production as about the New York fiasco takes the material out of and beyond the immediate context, as does our awareness that we, its readers, are not members of the Theatre Union. Zur Nacheiferung. On the relationship between the two adaptations, see Thomas and Kepka — Rather, it is because of her representative role as an oppressed figure who grows in political stature to become capable of exemplary revolutionary behavior. Wohin gingen an dem Abend, wo die chinesische Mauer fertig war Die Mauerer?
GBA, Yet while memorably impassioned, even this rapid-fire battery of questions amounts to little more than a series of rhetorical variations on the central point that the past has been monopolized as the history of great men. As the political significance of her learning to read suggests, this is the dialectical point at which Wlassowa, by intervening, becomes in a new sense exemplary and is no longer merely representative in her victimhood.
Reinigt Waffen. Geschlagene und Unerbittliche. It would take Brecht some time to adequately theorize the difference between permissible and impermissible feelings in Epic Theater. So wie sie nicht darauf ausgeht, ihren Helden der Welt als seinem unentrinnbaren Schicksal auszuliefern, liegt es auch nicht in ihrem Sinn, den Zuschauer einem suggestiven Theatererlebnis auszuliefern. GBA, The points made here, although important, remain non-specific and are once more largely presented ex negativo.
Body language and verbal behavior will also have to be scrutinized. Placed here, the term implies that whatever criticisms are being voiced are intended in a spirit of comradely constructiveness. Criticism and encouragement thus form two parts of the same section, the one would not have been offered without the counterbalancing optimism that his readers could be convinced of the necessity of epic production techniques.
Ich las Eure Bearbeitung.
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Kohlgeruch Kommt vom Herd. The poem could even be read as an attempt to accustom the reader to the laconic register and simplicity of style with which Paul Peters and the actors had experienced such difficulty. The juxtaposition of a prudently revised version and a poem on how and how not to stage a work of Epic Theater was a shrewd move. As long as Brecht was dependent on the production vagaries of his exile predicament and had to take account of the hold of the Stanislavskians in America, a didactic poem combining elements reminding its readers of an exemplary production with the cautionary account of a stylistic betrayal was an appropriately realistic response.
And it also accounts for why the poem ends, not on a recriminatory note, but with a rallying call: [. Ist es schwer zu machen? In other words, the challenge of confronting the aesthetically new Epic Theater also has political implications, an idea taken up in the image of the suspicious person who has always been deceived and exploited and for whom life is an experiment — something that politically radical theater should also be.
There is no such double ratification in the prose version of the idea that Epic Theater must lead from the front. These notes, published in vol. The desire to deemphasize earlier polemics and recriminations explains why initially only the first two sections of the poem are used in Theaterarbeit, for they allow Brecht to focus on the main features of the original play.
A further and possibly not unrelated reason for only including a portion of the poem in the part of Theaterarbeit devoted to specific productions was that it helped emphasize the continuities between the and the Berliner Ensemble production. The stress on these features in may have been intended to align the play with the some of the formal requirements of a work of Socialist Realism.
He even adds that Gorky had read and authorized the adaptation. GBA, , then it would take such a thought one stage further. GBA, —45 It is no longer the cautious American theater workers who are being encouraged to grasp the moment, but the audiences of the East Berlin production. At the same time it piously insinuates that any such antagonistic misunderstandings are out of place in the new GDR. Two well-chosen photographs of the New York stage sets are intended to corroborate this cosmetic version of what had actually happened in A major disappointment now reads like a signal victory for Epic Theater.
To make its mark effectively in the new GDR climate, the poem had to be cut up, redistributed and refunctionalized. GBA, on this point. But this seems unlikely. Die Theatralisierung der Politik durch den Faschismus habe ich schon ein wenig bearbeitet. Grundmodell einer Szene des epischen Theaters Er zeigt, wie Der Unfall vor sich ging. Reality, the poem must show, is out there among ordinary people, not in the citadels of high culture, a fact theater forgets at its peril. The images of actors as glorified parrots or monkeys denigrate. The theater has been transformed into a temple to Unreason, and it needs to be rescued by people coming in off the street.
Immer Bleibt er der Zeigende, selbst nicht Verwickelte. The theater of everyday life is not only held up as a model for serious political theater to emulate, but also makes certain contemporary practices appear doubly laughable. Whereas much contemporary theater, with its arcane rituals and its obsession with transforming character, actor, and audience into a symbiotic entity, is a place of mystification, everything happening in the street is open to inspection and confirms commonsense. Sie sind meist komischer Natur. In each case, surface reality will not be understood if it is only slavishly imitated.
Allegedly, that is what happens in street scenes, even if there the end result often remains purely an act of exposure. Once more, radical politicization is required. Das ist das Feld, auf dem der Demonstrant seine Charaktere aufbaut. In diesem Falle tritt das Soziale besser in Erscheinung. GBA, Because this is a pared-down model, there is never any suggestion that a Marxist might be driving the car and that it has run over a capitalist — or even a Stanislavskian actor!
GBA, The reason why this poem deserves pride of place in any dramaturgical sequence should by now be apparent. It has much to say about the importance of the non-Stanislavskian systems of preparation required of the epic actor. In this respect, it needs to precede both the vital processes of familiarizing oneself with the script and the collective rehearsal stage. Who else conducted so much of their business in the street in the s? By means of a series of rhetorical antitheses temple vs. But the same situation did not obtain in the R.
It is therefore unlikely that he would have addressed them directly in a German poem. We, his readers, are in turn assigned the part of collective addressees. The rationale behind such a strategy is that all actors, not just the R. An alternative reading of this shift of perspective would be to assume the poem is made up of a montage of independent perspectives and voices. What follows is an orchestration similar to that in some of the radio discussions.
Yet before the more magisterial voice establishes and positions itself intertextually, there are moments of apparent indecision. Some may already be aware of the advantages of Epic Theater, others will remain unreconstructed Stanislavskians, and some still hover undecided. Such a lack of homogeneity is emphasized by the dispute that has broken out among the working-class members of the audience.
Now the real conflict is not about two diametrically opposed conceptions of effective theater, but between two ideologies. Affirmative theater is rejected by those who know they are masters of their own fate and demand to see this fact reflected in a new form of drama. Er ist machtlos gegen das Schicksal.
Either Brecht was so pleased with the formulation that he simply recycled it on a number of subsequent occasions or, more likely, he is implying that the R. The idea of Man being master of his own fate has given way to a dual defamiliarizing contrast: first, between the fruit grower and the passerby and then — boldly suggesting the leap of vision required of actors and audiences alike — between fruit trees and the fruit-growers into whom the trees must transform themselves overnight.
The stanza that conjures up the image of the fruit-bearing trees themselves becoming gardeners ends with the assurance that actors who are also workers are well on their way to such an act of self-transcendence. Rather, they are being invited to recall phenomena that they may have frequently witnessed in the past and to consider their implications for a political theater of distance.
We are told, for example, that the observer should be able to differentiate between the behavior of various people as they pay their taxes, even if everybody pays them reluctantly, and see the difference between the person paying taxes and the tax collector, despite the fact that both are victims of the selfsame system. Observation, as these examples suggest, is conceived of as something more than a meticulous noting of large numbers of individual details; it is the ability to decode phenomena from an activist, class-conscious perspective.
If Brecht was ostensibly still addressing the R. In this respect, one can appreciate why he wanted it to appear near the beginning of the contemplated sequence, almost as a prologue. Its highly specific historical situating meant that it could serve as an overture to other, seemingly narrower theater poems.
Literally, of course, like so many buildings in Germany immediately after the defeat of the Nazi regime, the few remaining theaters were, if not destroyed, badly in need of rebuilding and renovation. When it comes to seeing the world through red-tinted spectacles, this introduction only meets its match in the first scene of Der kaukasische Kreidekreis, the one set in the Soviet Union. Indeed, the lines also read like a calculated counterpiece to the image of the hypnotized Weimar Republic audiences lampooned at the end of Die Dreigroschenoper, people content to settle for contrived operatic endings and untroubled that these seldom occur in real life.
The illusions of which theater has to be purged are both those of the theater of empathy and those of the recent fascist past. Hardly what Stanislavsky meant by Emotion Memory! Because of this sense, not only of immediacy, but of uniqueness, audiences are lulled into feeling at liberty to escape their real identities by pretending that what they are witnessing is a slice of reality unfolding.
To put down a 28 marker to the effect that empathy is based on a false premise of this kind was a bold move on the part of someone preparing the ground for a return to what had now become the Soviet Zone of Occupation. Und es sind auch Beispiele von Kunst. GBA, The imagery and examples chosen are seductive. Nor can it be fortuituous that it is in the very last line of the poem where we hear that these are also examples of art, not just of fruitful criticism in general.
Arguably, the third example is closest to the interventionist agenda of Epic Theater, though what is stressed in all these illustrations is the identity of what might to many seem a mental activity that leads on to positive achievements. After the publication of Theaterarbeit, the flow of dramaturgical poetry slowed to a trickle.
Versuche 14 merely republishes earlier poems and no further ones were added to the ever growing Messingkauf complex. What is more, the dramaturgical poems treat such questions in ways that often differ quite substantially from the discussion of them in the theoretical writings in prose. The Antigone production was not the only activity undertaken at the time with East Berlin in mind. Die Schweiz, das war unsere Vorbereitung auf Berlin.
Da gab es so viel Angefangenes. Er war davon nicht begeistert, aber er hat eingesehen und das Organon geschrieben. Ach, das haben Sie angeregt? Immer schleppte er viele Seiten Theorie mit herum und wollte sie ordnen. Hecht offers the most detailed account to date of the relationship between Der Messingkauf and Kleines Organon Hecht , — And how did the one work grow out of the other? Like Brecht himself, Hecht is in part concerned with the genetic aspect of the relationship. For others, the focus has been on differences of a more general order.
This is not just one further difference, but a crucial contrast. While Brecht had his reasons for wishing to highlight continuities in his work, a new factor has entered the equation: one which makes the positioning of Kleines Organon in relation to his earlier dramaturgical pronouncements a far more delicate undertaking. Such a grudging remark may risk underrepresenting just how often Brecht had touched on wider aesthetic questions in his previous writings.
As BHB, vol. But Bentley planned to come at the task from a different angle. Yet even if this were so and there are competing genetic scenarios2 , the emphasis was still on the need to present himself to American audiences.
Synonyms and antonyms of Sackerl in the German dictionary of synonyms
This is your privilege. The reference is to Fuller Kleines Organon is too unlike Der Messingkauf for a draft of it to have existed in But since no such draft is available for scrutiny, its arguments and methodology must remain as much matters of speculation as the question of whether or not it ever existed.
In this case, there is a modicum of supporting documentation. A series of pieces were written in quick succession, most with consecutively numbered sections, giving the impression that they were conceived as forming part of a larger project. But he had over the years mellowed, 3 The pieces, all in GBA, vol. Und am Verkauf von shocks und Emotionen. In the case of the more Eurocentric Kleines Organon, it would have been difficult to read the reference to a dominant aesthetic as applying to the United States. But any battle between Brecht and the theater of his host country was one-sided.
Even if he was not responding to a call, Weigel was right in thinking that Brecht needed to return to Berlin with a high-profile program. What is beyond dispute, even as early as the time of the contretemps with Gorelik, was that Brecht would eventually return to Europe, in all probability East Berlin, and that he was well aware of the need to equip himself with an up-to-date theoretical passport. But such a picture foregrounds surface structural affinities at the risk of failing to do justice to the difference between an authoritative Aristotelian organon and a similarly organized Baconian inductive organum.
BHB, , misleadingly suggests a formal indebtedness only to Bacon, whereas the work in many respects stands more at the watershed between its two models. At issue is not the at times self-consciously experimental nature of the undertaking: the attempt to imagine how an aesthetic would look when extrapolated from a certain form of theater, that is, Epic Theater seen as Theater for the Scientific Age. Evidently, such an aesthetic is presented in a way that seeks to avoid becoming apodictic or dogmatically prescriptive. Rather, it concerns the restricted scope of what is about to be formulated.
In his defense, one could argue that Brecht is not just writing about his own work, but about what he hopes will become the theater of the modern age. In general, from the Renaissance and German Baroque until the last third of the eighteenth century, the notion of usefulness, now given a specifically Christian interpretation, predominates, with pleasure being at times reduced to the status of a necessary compromise between lofty moral purpose and catering to more self-indulgent literary appetites.
Yet there is one exception to this reluctance to place Organon within a post-Renaissance tradition of aesthetics. In the absolute sense suggested above, Brecht had never carried out his intention of emigrating from the realm of enjoyment; and in any case no one can partly emigrate or do so half-heartedly. If the throwaway reason given for ending the Mahagonny notes seems more question-begging than illuminating, it is surprising that Brecht chooses to draw attention to this passage. The Prodigal Son has returned to his true home, would seem to be the message.
Some of this playfulness can be seen in his repeated prediction that such an assumed change of heart will be met with dismay by those who always thought they had found his Achilles heel. Yet such teasing nevertheless risks introducing an unnecessarily confrontational element, patronizingly predicting, as it seems to do, that general consternation will be the response to any such volte-face and that almost everyone would be happier if he were to continue making the same mistakes he is assumed to have made in the past.
As all this suggests, the prologue to Kleines Organon plays a series of cunning games with the image of the East Germany Brecht would like to be returning to, rather than his actual destination. Brecht is not in any simple sense a lost soul recanting what is presented as his earlier misguided position on entertainment as a cultural luxury in dark times. He is keeping his powder dry until the claim can be made as part of an unfolding historical-cum-dialectical account of how Epic Theater came to assume the role of Theater of the Scientific Age.
Dieser Trennung nachzugehen ist nicht ohne Reiz. Seine Darstellung des ihm vorschwebenden Theaters des neuen Zeitalters erscheint ihm jetzt zu allgemein, zu technisch, zu formal. For theatre remains theatre even while it is didactic, and as long as it is good theatre it is also entertaining. As no doubt it needed to at the time. And the possibility has been aired that certain kinds of apolitical pleasure derived from various historically diverse cultural sources have in some respect become anachronisms.
In other words, Brecht thereby succeeds in denigrating virtually all past and present alternatives to his own theater before proceeding to the panacea. As a consequence, it remains largely a matter of the adequate intellectual contextualization of historical phenomena. Und ich erhebe mich in die Luft, was mein Vater nicht konnte. Although the January staging of Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder at the Deutsches Theater in East Berlin was to be the nearest production in time to the Sinn und Form publication of Kleines Organon with the result that the play and the Organon were often discussed in tandem, as if they represented a perfect match between theory and practice , the spirit that informs the theoretical work remains palpably that of Leben des Galilei.
For those more sensitive to what he is really saying here and what he has repeatedly said in the past , a coded message of this kind will reinforce the impression that subtle changes of emphasis, not huge tectonic shifts, are taking place. By the end of the first twenty-five paragraphs or sections , the task of establishing a historical scheme within which the Theater of the Scientific Age can be legitimized has been accomplished.
There is also a difference of method. Such parallelism and antithetical structuring, reminiscent of the Psalms, leads to an even more devastating critique of audience inertia, since it is now measured against the alternative. The focus is emphatically on the audience of non-Aristotelian theater, one that prefers to exchange a fantasy world for the one it feels forced to inhabit. We are here offered no equivalent metaphor for the attitudes of the new audience, made up of the children of the Scientific Age.
For, staying with the merry-goround image, it would be difficult to imagine what the alternative equivalent of such childish willing suspension of disbelief would be. The juxtaposition, with its emphasis firmly on the advantages of the planetarium-type of theater, was at one stage to have formed part of Der Messingkauf cf. Although all four essays make a distinction between K and P types in their titles, only the last two explain the implications of the contrast. Fiktiverweise reiten, fliegen, steuern wir selber. In Leben des Galilei, astronomy is also associated with ridding the heavens of metaphysics cf.
This association is absent from the theoretical planetarium model; if there is any implicit allusion to secularization, it merely comes in the analogy between the movement of the planets and social and political behavior patterns. This final essay, arguably elliptical to the point where it can only be fully understood in the light of the previous piece, makes little attempt to elaborate on the suggestion that various spheres of responsibility are being usurped by the two types of theater.
Although in the final two essays Brecht tries to endow his contrasting models with a degree of philosophical and political significance, the attempt remains both sketchy and rather contrived. By restricting the image to the gullibilty of traditional theater audiences, it achieves an essentially satirical effect. With the final essay, the model becomes too allegorized and loses some of its cognitive value.
Instead it is clumsily imported into the metaphors defining the two types. The planetarium model may explain the movement of the planets, but it can hardly make them change their orbits in the interventionist way that Epic Theater was meant to function. In one respect, it is a strange assertion. There are times when appearing to fight the battle with surface mimesis via a critique of historical Naturalism allows Brecht to avoid openly engaging in polemics with the Stanislavskians immediately after his return to East Berlin.
Much non-Brechtian theater is thus presented as harnessed to an obsolete aesthetic and pandering to infantile needs. Change is required. Even various categories of audience response have been seen in historical context. Dies bedeutet den Bruch mit unserer Gewohnheit, die verschiedenen gesellschaftlichen Strukturen vergangener Zeitalter [. The real motives impelling him are unknown to him, otherwise it would not be an ideological process at all.
Hence he imagines false or apparent motives. As Alvin W. It is the precondition for more important political perspectives on the material portrayed. And that can, without necessarily having to, involve a contradictory relationship between character and behavior. The claim is no doubt advanced with the errors of Socialist Realism in mind.
At root it is profoundly ideological. At the highest level of generality, it has to do with productivity or the lack thereof. Das Studium der Dialektik empfiehlt sich [. There is clearly some substance to this final charge, just as certain theater poems were not included in chapter 3 of the present study on the grounds that they were concerned with narrowly pragmatic issues of the kind mentioned above.
Once the poems have been removed from the Messingkauf context, as in GBA they largely have been, they can only deal with their material in isolation, deprived of the support of an overall theoretical context of the kind that Der Messingkauf would eventually have provided. In this respect, their contribution is that of practical illustrations of general dramaturgical and aesthetic points.
Purism of the kind advocated by Hultberg is not desirable. Whatever example one has in mind — be it from the writings of Aristotle, Horace, Gottsched, Lessing, Diderot, or Nietzsche — it would be difficult to find a theoretical work that remains rigorously theory-bound and makes no reference to actual plays or to practical matters.
Kleines Organon represents a judicious response in part to the need Brecht felt in the immediate postwar period to recapitulate his earlier attempts at theorizing acting and production techniques in the writings of the late s, especially those that came in the wake of his detailed study of the published work of Stanislavsky. Yet even though there is more of a pragmatic strand to the discussion than some have conceded, the Organon nevertheless tends to foreground general principles and characteristics of a type of theater rather than dwell on practical illustrations.
It is addressed first and foremost to the actor. In each case, it is the actor who binds the material together. The actor has to adopt a political standpoint, and any method of communicating the material to the audience has to be centered on this political view. But to talk of the actor in the generic singular risks becoming unhelpfully schematic. Kleines Organon does not always treat the actor generically, but the issue of ideological homogeneity as a potential danger is not confronted head-on. What may have been prudent reticence during the years of Scandinavian and American exile would clearly not do for East Berlin.
They will have to acquire the ability to do this at the stage when they begin to interact with other actors and are thus able to see their parts from both the inside and the outside. It appears to show Brecht, the self-appointed arch anti-Aristotelian, for once wholeheartedly agreeing with Aristotle. But Brecht in any case so redefines plot and character as to renegotiate the relationship between the elements involved.
In doing so, he isolates what Aristotle merely posits as one of six elements of tragedy also including character, verbal expression, the imitation of intellect, spectacle and song-writing , thus omitting any reference to the typological scheme to which it belongs. When properly handled, an emphasis on the story line can thus disregard the psychological aspect of drama and lead to a more suprapersonal, political approach to problems.
Some of the formulations in Kleines Organon hint at this e. Whether he felt he had not done sufficient justice to the subject in the main body of Kleines Organon or was merely acting on a suspicion that this subject would represent the main point of attack is now impossible to determine. Cathartic effects, like tragedy itself, are treated as if they were either politically affirmative or merely escapist.