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See All Customer Reviews. Shop Books. Read an excerpt of this book! A Northampton County, Virginia court ruled for Johnson, declaring that Parker illegally was detaining Casor from his rightful master who legally held him "for the duration of his life". During the colonial period, the status of slaves was affected by interpretations related to the status of foreigners in England.
England had no system of naturalizing immigrants to its island or its colonies. Since persons of African origins were not English subjects by birth, they were among those peoples considered foreigners and generally outside English common law. The colonies struggled with how to classify people born to foreigners and subjects. In Virginia, Elizabeth Key Grinstead , a mixed-race woman, successfully gained her freedom and that of her son in a challenge to her status by making her case as the baptized Christian daughter of the free Englishman Thomas Key.
Her attorney was an English subject, which may have helped her case. He was also the father of her mixed-race son, and the couple married after Key was freed.
Cultural Enslavement - Breaking Free Into Abundant Living (Electronic book text)
Shortly after the Elizabeth Key trial and similar challenges, in the Virginia royal colony approved a law adopting the principle of partus sequitur ventrem called partus , for short , stating that any children born in the colony would take the status of the mother. A child of an enslaved mother would be born into slavery, regardless if the father were a freeborn Englishman or Christian.
This was a reversal of common law practice in England, which ruled that children of English subjects took the status of the father. The change institutionalized the skewed power relationships between slave owners and slave women, freed white men from the legal responsibility to acknowledge or financially support their mixed-race children, and somewhat confined the open scandal of mixed-race children and miscegenation to within the slave quarters. In , King Charles II rechartered the Royal African Company it had initially been set up in , as an English monopoly for the African slave and commodities trade—thereafter in , by statute, the English parliament opened the trade to all English subjects.
The Virginia Slave codes of further defined as slaves those people imported from nations that were not Christian. Native Americans who were sold to colonists by other Native Americans from rival tribes , or captured by Europeans during village raids, were also defined as slaves. In , the Georgia Trustees enacted a law prohibiting slavery in the new colony, which had been established in to enable the "worthy poor" as well as persecuted European Protestants to have a new start.
Slavery was then legal in the other twelve English colonies. Neighboring South Carolina had an economy based on the use of enslaved labor. The Georgia Trustees wanted to eliminate the risk of slave rebellions and make Georgia better able to defend against attacks from the Spanish to the south, who offered freedom to escaped slaves. James Edward Oglethorpe was the driving force behind the colony, and the only trustee to reside in Georgia. He opposed slavery on moral grounds as well as for pragmatic reasons, and vigorously defended the ban on slavery against fierce opposition from Carolina slave merchants and land speculators.
The Protestant Scottish highlanders who settled what is now Darien, Georgia , added a moral anti-slavery argument, which became increasingly rare in the South, in their "Petition of the Inhabitants of New Inverness". As economic conditions in England began to improve in the first half of the 18th century, workers had no reason to leave, especially to face the risks in the colonies.
During most of the British colonial period, slavery existed in all the colonies. People enslaved in the North typically worked as house servants, artisans, laborers and craftsmen, with the greater number in cities. Many men worked on the docks and in shipping. In , more than 42 percent of New York City households held slaves, the second-highest proportion of any city in the colonies after Charleston, South Carolina. By there were , Blacks in a population of 2, million. They were unevenly distributed. There were 14, in New England where they were 2. The South developed an agricultural economy dependent on commodity crops.
Its planters rapidly acquired a significantly higher number and proportion of slaves in the population overall, as its commodity crops were labor-intensive. Before then long-staple cotton was cultivated primarily on the Sea Islands of Georgia and South Carolina. The invention of the cotton gin in enabled the cultivation of short-staple cotton in a wide variety of mainland areas, leading to the development of large areas of the Deep South as cotton country in the 19th century. Rice cultivation and tobacco were very labor-intensive. They also worked in the artisanal trades on large plantations and in many southern port cities.
Backwoods subsistence farmers, the later wave of settlers in the 18th century who settled along the Appalachian Mountains and backcountry, seldom held enslaved people. Some of the British colonies attempted to abolish the international slave trade , fearing that the importation of new Africans would be disruptive.
Virginia bills to that effect were vetoed by the British Privy Council. Rhode Island forbade the import of enslaved people in All of the colonies except Georgia had banned or limited the African slave trade by ; Georgia did so in Some [ which? Slaves transported to America: . The great majority of enslaved Africans were transported to sugar colonies in the Caribbean and to Brazil. As life expectancy was short, their numbers had to be continually replenished. Life expectancy was much higher in the U. The number of enslaved people in the U. From to , the rate of natural growth of North American enslaved people was much greater than for the population of any nation in Europe, and it was nearly twice as rapid as that of England.
The white population from 3. The percentage of the Black population went from Louisiana was founded as a French colony. This resulted in a different pattern of slavery in Louisiana, purchased in , compared to the rest of the United States. Although it authorized and codified cruel corporal punishment against slaves under certain conditions, it forbade slave owners from torturing them or separating married couples or to separate young children from their mothers.
It also required the owners to instruct slaves in the Catholic faith. Together with a more permeable historic French system that allowed certain rights to gens de couleur libres free people of color , who were often born to white fathers and their mixed-race concubines, a far higher percentage of African Americans in Louisiana were free as of the census Most of Louisiana's "third class" of free people of color, situated between the native-born French and mass of African slaves, lived in New Orleans.
The mixed-race offspring creoles of color from these unions were among those in the intermediate social caste of free people of color. The English colonies, in contrast, insisted on a binary system that treated mulatto and black slaves equally under the law, and discriminated against equally if free. But many free people of African descent were mixed race.
When the U. They officially discouraged interracial relationships although white men continued to have unions with black women, both enslaved and free. The Americanization of Louisiana gradually resulted in a binary system of race, causing free people of color to lose status as they were grouped with the slaves. They lost certain rights as they became classified by American whites as officially "black".
While a smaller number of African slaves were kept and sold in England,  slavery in Great Britain had not been authorized by statute there.
In , it was made unenforceable at common law in England and Wales by a legal decision. The large British role in the international slave trade continued until Slavery flourished in most of Britain's colonies, with many wealthy slave owners living in England and holding considerable power. In early Lord Dunmore , royal governor of Virginia, wrote to Lord Dartmouth of his intent to free slaves owned by Patriots in case of rebellion.
Slaves owned by Loyalist masters, however, were unaffected by Dunmore's Proclamation. About slaves owned by Patriots escaped and joined Dunmore's forces. Most died of disease before they could do any fighting. Three hundred of these freed slaves made it to freedom in Britain.
Many slaves used the very disruption of war to escape their plantations and fade into cities or woods. In the closing months of the war, the British evacuated 20, freedmen from major coastal cities, transporting more than 3, for resettlement in Nova Scotia , where they were registered as Black Loyalists and eventually granted land. They transported others to the Caribbean islands, and some to England.
At the same time, the British were transporting Loyalists and their slaves, primarily to the Caribbean, but some to Nova Scotia. For example, over 5, enslaved Africans owned by Loyalists were transported in with their owners from Savannah to Jamaica and St. Augustine, Florida then controlled by Britain. Similarly, over half of the black people evacuated in from Charleston by the British to the West Indies and Florida were slaves owned by white Loyalists.
Slaves and free blacks also fought on the side of rebels during the Revolutionary War. Washington authorized slaves to be freed who fought with the American Continental Army. Rhode Island started enlisting slaves in , and promised compensation to owners whose slaves enlisted and survived to gain freedom. In the 18th century, Britain became the world's largest slave trader.
Starting in , the Patriots outlawed the importation of slaves state by state. They all acted to end the international trade but it was later reopened in South Carolina and Georgia. In Congress acted on President Jefferson's advice and made importing slaves from abroad a federal crime, as the Constitution permitted, starting January 1, Slavery was the single most contentious issue in the writing and approval of the Constitution of the United States.
In it the words "slave" and "slavery" do not appear, although several provisions clearly refer to it. The Constitution did not prohibit, and therefore tacitly permitted, slavery. Section 9 of Article I forbade the Federal government from preventing the importation of slaves before January 1, As a protection for slavery, the delegates approved Section 2 of Article IV , which prohibited states from freeing slaves who fled to them from another state, and required the return of chattel property to owners.
In a section negotiated by James Madison of Virginia, Section 2 of Article I designated "other persons" slaves to be added to the total of the state's free population, at the rate of three-fifths of their total number, to establish the state's official population for the purposes of apportionment of Congressional representation and federal taxation. In addition, many parts of the country were tied to the Southern economy. As the historian James Oliver Horton noted, prominent slaveholder politicians and the commodity crops of the South had a strong influence on United States politics and economy.
Horton said,. The power of Southern states in Congress lasted until the Civil War , affecting national policies, legislation, and appointments. The planter elite dominated the Southern Congressional delegations and the United States presidency for nearly 50 years. The U. Constitution barred the federal government from prohibiting the importation of slaves for 20 years. Various states passed different restrictions on the international slave trade during that period; by , the only state still allowing the importation of African slaves was South Carolina.
After , legal importation of slaves ceased, although there was smuggling via lawless Spanish Florida and the disputed Gulf Coast to the west. The replacement for the importation of slaves from abroad was increased domestic production. Virginia and Maryland had little new agricultural development, and their need for slaves was mostly for replacements for decedents. Normal reproduction more than supplied these: Virginia and Maryland had surpluses of slaves. Their tobacco farms were "worn out"  and the climate was not suitable for cotton or sugar cane.
The surplus was even greater because slaves were encouraged to reproduce though they could not marry. The white supremacist Virginian Thomas Roderick Dew wrote in that Virginia was a "negro-raising state"; i. Virginia "produced" slaves. Where demand for slaves was the strongest was in what was then the southwest of the country: Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, and later Texas, Arkansas, and Missouri.
Here there was abundant land suitable for plantation agriculture, which young men with some capital established. This was expansion of the white, monied population: younger men seeking their fortune. The most valuable crop that could be grown on a plantation in that climate was cotton. That crop was labor-intensive, and the least-costly laborers were slaves.
Demand for slaves exceeded the supply in the southwest; therefore slaves, never cheap if they were productive, went for a higher price. As portrayed in Uncle Tom's Cabin the "original" cabin was in Maryland  , "selling South" was greatly feared. A recently publicized example of the practice of "selling South" is the sale by Jesuits of slaves from Maryland, to plantations in Louisiana, to benefit Georgetown University , which "owes its existence" to this transaction. Traders responded to the demand, including John Armfield and his uncle Isaac Franklin , who were "reputed to have made over half a million dollars in 19th-century value " in the slave trade.
Setting up an office in what was then the District of Columbia , regional center of the slave trade, in Alexandria , "a major slave trading port for more than a century",  the two men went into business in buying slaves in the North and selling them in the South:. The subscribers having leased for a term of years the large three story brick house on Duke Street, in the town of Alexandria, D.
Young, we wish to purchase one hundred and fifty likely young negroes of both sexes, between the ages of 8 and 25 years. Persons who wish to sell will do well to give us a call, as we are determined to give more than any other purchasers that are in market, or that may hereafter come into market. Any letters addressed to the subscribers through the Post Office at Alexandria, will be promptly attended to. For information, enquire at the above described house, as we can at all times be found there.
This house on Duke Street houses the Freedom House Museum , with exhibits on the slave trade and the lives of slaves. Francisville and Vidalia, Louisiana. Their partnership grew to the point that when the partnership was dissolved in and the business sold, they owned six ships for the sole purpose of transporting slaves, with monthly and then biweekly sailings.
The ships carried miscellaneous cargo on the return trips. Franklin and Armfield's Alexandria site was visited by various abolitionists , who have left detailed descriptions of it. They concur in that Mr. Armfield, in contrast with Robert Lumpkin among others, was the most scrupulous of the major slave traders, who would not knowingly purchase kidnapped slaves or freedmen, and whose slaves were reasonably well treated while he owned them, at least at the Duke Street facility. Slaves appeared to concur in this relatively positive picture, asking that if they were to be sold, that they be sold to Mr.
However, Armfield frequently took children from their parents and sold them South. In the United States in the early nineteenth century, owners of female slaves could freely and legally use them as sexual objects. This follows free use of female slaves on slaving vessels by the crews.
The sale of a year-old "nearly a fancy" is documented,  Zephaniah Kingsley, Jr. Furthermore, females of breeding age were supposed to be kept pregnant,  producing more slaves to sell. The variations in skin color found in the United States make it obvious how often black women were impregnated by whites. Light-skinned girls, who contrasted with the black field workers, were preferred.
The sexual use of black slaves by white men, either slave owners or those who could purchase the temporary services of a slave, took various forms. A slaveowner, or his teenage sons, could go to the slave quarters area of the plantation and do what he wanted, usually in front of the rest of the slaves, or with minimal privacy. It was common for a "house" female — a housekeeper, maid, cook, laundress, or nanny — to be used by one or more white males of the household for their sexual enjoyment. Houses of prostitution throughout the slave states were largely staffed by female slaves providing sexual services, to their owners' profit.
There were a small number of free black females engaged in prostitution, or concubinage, especially in New Orleans. White men who engaged in sexual activity with female slaves "were often the elite of the community. They had little need to worry about public scorn. Light-skinned young girls were sold openly for sexual use; their price was much higher than that of a field hand. Gentry vividly remembered a day in New Orleans when he and the nineteen-year-old Lincoln came upon a slave market.
Pausing to watch, Gentry recalled looking down at Lincoln's hands and seeing that he "doubled his fists tightly; his knuckles went white. And then the real horror begins: "When the sale of "fancy girls" began, Lincoln, "unable to stand it any longer," muttered to Gentry "Allen that's a disgrace. If I ever get a lick at that thing I'll hit it hard. Those "considered educated and refined, were purchased by the wealthiest clients, usually plantation owners, to become personal sexual companions.
The terrifying issue which did come up frequently was the exaggerated threat of sexual intercourse between black male and white female. Just as the black women were perceived as having "a trace of Africa, that supposedly incited passion and sexual wantonness",  : 39 the men were perceived as savages, unable to control their lust, given an opportunity. A colorful but unique approach to the question was offered by Quaker and Florida planter Zephaniah Kingsley, Jr. He advocated, and personally practiced, deliberate racial mixing through marriage, as part of his proposed solution to the slavery issue: racial integration.
In an Treatise , he stated that mixed-race people were healthier and often more beautiful, that interracial sex was hygienic, and that slavery made it convenient. There were many others who less flagrantly practiced interracial, common-law marriages with slaves see Partus sequitur ventrem. In the 19th century, proponents of slavery often defended the institution as a "necessary evil". White people of that time feared that emancipation of black slaves would have more harmful social and economic consequences than the continuation of slavery.
We have the wolf by the ear, and we can neither hold him, nor safely let him go. Justice is in one scale, and self-preservation in the other. The French writer and traveler Alexis de Tocqueville , in his influential Democracy in America , expressed opposition to slavery while observing its effects on American society. He felt that a multiracial society without slavery was untenable, as he believed that prejudice against blacks increased as they were granted more rights for example, in northern states. He believed that the attitudes of white Southerners, and the concentration of the black population in the South, were bringing the white and black populations to a state of equilibrium, and were a danger to both races.
Because of the racial differences between master and slave, he believed that the latter could not be emancipated. There are few, I believe, in this enlightened age, who will not acknowledge that slavery as an institution is a moral and political evil. It is idle to expatiate on its disadvantages.
I think it is a greater evil to the white than to the colored race. While my feelings are strongly enlisted in behalf of the latter, my sympathies are more deeply engaged for the former. The blacks are immeasurably better off here than in Africa, morally, physically, and socially. The painful discipline they are undergoing is necessary for their further instruction as a race, and will prepare them, I hope, for better things.
How long their servitude may be necessary is known and ordered by a merciful Providence. However, as the abolitionist movement's agitation increased and the area developed for plantations expanded, apologies for slavery became more faint in the South. Leaders then described slavery as a beneficial scheme of labor control. John C. Calhoun , in a famous speech in the Senate in , declared that slavery was "instead of an evil, a good—a positive good". Calhoun supported his view with the following reasoning: in every civilized society one portion of the community must live on the labor of another; learning, science, and the arts are built upon leisure; the African slave, kindly treated by his master and mistress and looked after in his old age, is better off than the free laborers of Europe; and under the slave system conflicts between capital and labor are avoided.
The advantages of slavery in this respect, he concluded, "will become more and more manifest, if left undisturbed by interference from without, as the country advances in wealth and numbers". Other Southern writers who also began to portray slavery as a positive good were James Henry Hammond and George Fitzhugh. They presented several arguments to defend the act of slavery in the South.
In a speech to the Senate on March 4, , Hammond developed his "Mudsill Theory," defending his view on slavery stating, "Such a class you must have, or you would not have that other class which leads progress, civilization, and refinement. It constitutes the very mud-sill of society and of political government; and you might as well attempt to build a house in the air, as to build either the one or the other, except on this mud-sill. George Fitzhugh used assumptions about white superiority to justify slavery, writing that, "the Negro is but a grown up child, and must be governed as a child.
He states that "The negro slaves of the South are the happiest, and in some sense, the freest people in the world. He explained the differences between the constitution of the Confederate Republic and that of the United States , and laid out the cause for the American Civil War, and a defense of slavery. The new Constitution has put at rest forever all the agitating questions relating to our peculiar institutions—African slavery as it exists among us—the proper status of the negro in our form of civilization. This was the immediate cause of the late rupture and present revolution.
Jefferson, in his forecast, had anticipated this, as the "rock upon which the old Union would split. What was conjecture with him, is now a realized fact. But whether he fully comprehended the great truth upon which that rock stood and stands, may be doubted. The prevailing ideas entertained by him and most of the leading statesmen at the time of the formation of the old Constitution were, that the enslavement of the African was in violation of the laws of nature; that it was wrong in principle, socially, morally and politically.
It was an evil they knew not well how to deal with; but the general opinion of the men of that day was, that, somehow or other, in the order of Providence, the institution would be evanescent and pass away Those ideas, however, were fundamentally wrong. They rested upon the assumption of the equality of races. This was an error.
It was a sandy foundation, and the idea of a Government built upon it—when the "storm came and the wind blew, it fell. Claims against slaves were allegedly backed by contemporary research. Samuel A. Cartwright , inventor of the mental illness of drapetomania — the desire of a slave to run away. Their report, first delivered to the Medical Association in an address, was published in their journal,  and then reprinted in part in the widely circulated DeBow's Review. Beginning during the revolution and in the first two decades of the postwar era, every state in the North abolished slavery, ending with New Jersey in , although in some cases existing slaves were not liberated immediately.
These were the first abolitionist laws in the Atlantic World. In Massachusetts, slavery was successfully challenged in court in in a freedom suit by Quock Walker ; he said that slavery was in contradiction to the state's new constitution of providing for equality of men. Freed slaves were subject to racial segregation and discrimination in the North, and it took decades for some states to extend the franchise to them. Most northern states passed legislation for gradual abolition, first freeing children born to slave mothers and requiring them to serve lengthy indentures to their mother's masters, often into their 20s as young adults.
As a result of this gradualist approach, New York did not fully free its last ex-slaves until , Rhode Island had seven slaves still listed in the census. Pennsylvania's last ex-slaves were freed in , Connecticut's in , and New Hampshire and New Jersey in None of the Southern states abolished slavery, but it was common for individual slaveholders in the South to free numerous slaves, often citing revolutionary ideals, in their wills.
Methodist, Quaker and Baptist preachers traveled in the South, appealing to slaveholders to manumit their slaves. By , the number and proportion of free blacks in the population of the United States had risen dramatically. Most free blacks resided in the North, but even in the Upper South, the proportion of free blacks went from less than one percent of all blacks to more than 10 percent, even as the total number of slaves was increasing through importation.
Through the Northwest Ordinance of under the Congress of the Confederation , slavery was prohibited in the territories northwest of the Ohio River ; existing slaves were not freed for years, although they could no longer be sold. This was a compromise. Thomas Jefferson proposed in to end slavery in all the territories, but his bill lost in the Congress by one vote.
The territories south of the Ohio River and Missouri had authorized slavery. What developed was a Northern block of free states united into one contiguous geographic area that generally shared an anti-slavery culture. The exceptions were the areas along the Ohio River settled by Southerners, the southern portions of states such as Indiana, Ohio and Illinois.
Residents of those areas generally shared in Southern culture and attitudes. In addition, these areas were devoted to agriculture longer than the industrializing northern parts of these states, and some farmers used slave labor. The emancipation of slaves in the North led to the growth in the population of northern free blacks, from several hundred in the s to nearly 50, by Throughout the first half of the 19th century, abolitionism, a movement to end slavery, grew in strength; most abolitionist societies and supporters were in the North.
They worked to raise awareness about the evils of slavery, and to build support for abolition. This struggle took place amid strong support for slavery among white Southerners, who profited greatly from the system of enslaved labor. But slavery was entwined with the national economy; for instance, the banking, shipping and manufacturing industries of New York City all had strong economic interests in slavery, as did similar industries in other major port cities in the North.
The northern textile mills in New York and New England processed Southern cotton and manufactured clothes to outfit slaves. By half of New York City's exports were related to cotton. Slaveholders began to refer to slavery as the " peculiar institution " to differentiate it from other examples of forced labor. They justified it as less cruel than the free labor of the North. The principal organized bodies to advocate abolition and anti-slavery reforms in the north were the Pennsylvania Abolition Society and the New York Manumission Society.
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Before the s the antislavery groups called for gradual emancipation. In the early part of the 19th century, other organizations were founded to take action on the future of black Americans. Some advocated removing free black people from the United States to places where they would enjoy greater freedom; some endorsed colonization in Africa, while others advocated emigration. But, by this time, most black Americans were native-born and did not want to emigrate; rather, they wanted full rights in the United States, where their people had lived and worked for generations. Many white people considered this preferable to emancipation in the United States.
Henry Clay , one of the founders and a prominent slaveholder politician from Kentucky, said that blacks faced. It was desirable, therefore, as it respected them, and the residue of the population of the country, to drain them off. After , abolitionist and minister William Lloyd Garrison promoted emancipation, characterizing slaveholding as a personal sin. He demanded that slaveowners repent and start the process of emancipation.
His position increased defensiveness on the part of some southerners, who noted the long history of slavery among many cultures. A few abolitionists, such as John Brown , favored the use of armed force to foment uprisings among the slaves, as he did at Harper's Ferry. Most abolitionists tried to raise public support to change laws and to challenge slave laws. Abolitionists were active on the lecture circuit in the North, and often featured escaped slaves in their presentations.
The eloquent Frederick Douglass became an important abolitionist leader after escaping from slavery. Harriet Beecher Stowe 's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin was an international bestseller and aroused popular sentiment against slavery. It also provoked the publication of numerous anti-Tom novels by Southerners in the years before the American Civil War.
While under the Constitution, Congress could not prohibit the import slave trade until , the third Congress regulated it in the Slave Trade Act of , which prohibited shipbuilding and outfitting for the trade. Subsequent acts in and sought to discourage the trade by limiting investment in import trading and prohibiting importation into states that had abolished slavery, which most in the North had by that time.
However, illegal importation of African slaves smuggling was common. After Great Britain and the United States outlawed the international slave trade in , British slave trade suppression activities began in through diplomatic efforts and formation of the Royal Navy's West Africa Squadron. From , they were assisted by forces from the United States Navy. With the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of , the relationship with Britain was formalized, and the two countries jointly ran the Blockade of Africa with their navies.
Although Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware were slave states, the latter two already had a high proportion of free blacks by the outbreak of war. Following the Revolution, the three legislatures made manumission easier, allowed by deed or will.
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Quaker and Methodist ministers particularly urged slaveholders to free their slaves. The number and proportion of freed slaves in these states rose dramatically until More than half of the number of free blacks in the United States were concentrated in the Upper South. The proportion of free blacks among the black population in the Upper South rose from less than one percent in to more than 10 percent by In the US as a whole, by the number of free blacks reached ,, or The growing international demand for cotton led many plantation owners further west in search of suitable land.
In addition, the invention of the cotton gin in enabled profitable processing of short-staple cotton, which could readily be grown in the uplands. The invention revolutionized the cotton industry by increasing fifty-fold the quantity of cotton that could be processed in a day. At the end of the War of , fewer than , bales of cotton were produced nationally. By the amount of cotton produced had increased to , bales, and by it had reached 4,, There was an explosive growth of cotton cultivation throughout the Deep South and greatly increased demand for slave labor to support it.
Most of the slaves sold from the Upper South were from Maryland , Virginia , and the Carolinas , where changes in agriculture decreased the need for their labor and the demand for slaves. Before , primary destinations for the slaves who were sold were Kentucky and Tennessee , but after Georgia , Alabama , Mississippi , Louisiana and Texas of the Deep South received the most slaves.
This is where cotton became king. By , the domestic slave trade had become a major economic activity in the United States; it lasted until the s. By the slave population in the United States had reached 4 million. The historian Ira Berlin called this forced migration of slaves the "Second Middle Passage", because it reproduced many of the same horrors as the Middle Passage the name given to the transportation of slaves from Africa to North America.
These sales of slaves broke up many families and caused much hardship. Characterizing it as the "central event" in the life of a slave between the American Revolution and the Civil War, Berlin wrote that whether slaves were directly uprooted or lived in fear that they or their families would be involuntarily moved, "the massive deportation traumatized black people, both slave and free. Added to the earlier colonists combining slaves from different tribes, many ethnic Africans lost their knowledge of varying tribal origins in Africa.
Most were descended from families who had been in the United States for many generations. In the s, almost , slaves were transported, with Alabama and Mississippi receiving , each. During each decade between and , at least , slaves were moved from their state of origin.
In the final decade before the Civil War, , were moved. Slave traders transported two-thirds of the slaves who moved west. Slave traders had little interest in purchasing or transporting intact slave families; in the early years, planters demanded only the young male slaves needed for heavy labor.
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Later, in the interest of creating a "self-reproducing labor force", planters purchased nearly equal numbers of men and women. Berlin wrote:. The internal slave trade became the largest enterprise in the South outside the plantation itself, and probably the most advanced in its employment of modern transportation, finance, and publicity. Several weeks later, a group of Wampanoags killed nine English colonists in the town of Swansea. The Wampanoags who attacked Swansea may have sought to restore balance, or to retaliate for the recent executions.
Neither they nor anyone else sought to engulf all of New England in war, but that is precisely what happened. Authorities in Plymouth sprang into action, enlisting help from the neighboring colonies of Connecticut and Massachusetts. Metacom and his followers eluded colonial forces in the summer of , striking more Plymouth towns as they moved northwest. Some groups joined his forces, while others remained neutral or supported the English. The war badly divided some Indian communities. Metacom himself had little control over events as panic and violence spread throughout New England in the autumn of English mistrust of neutral Indians, sometimes accompanied by demands that they surrender their weapons, pushed many into open war.
By the end of , most of the Indians of present-day western and central Massachusetts had entered the war, laying waste to nearby English towns like Deerfield, Hadley, and Brookfield. Hapless colonial forces, spurning the military assistance of Indian allies such as the Mohegans, proved unable to locate more mobile Native communities or intercept Indian attacks. The English compounded their problems by attacking the powerful and neutral Narragansett of Rhode Island in December In an action called the Great Swamp Fight, 1, Englishmen put the main Narragansett village to the torch, gunning down as many as 1, Narragansett men, women, and children as they fled the maelstrom.
The surviving Narragansett joined the Indians already fighting the English. Between February and April , Native forces devastated a succession of English towns closer and closer to Boston. In the spring of , the tide turned. The New England colonies took the advice of men like Benjamin Church, who urged the greater use of Native allies, including Pequot and Mohegan, to find and fight the mobile warriors.
As the Indians were unable to plant crops and forced to live off the land, their will to continue the struggle waned as companies of English and Native allies pursued them. Growing numbers of fighters fled the region, switched sides, or surrendered in the spring and summer. The English sold many of the latter group into slavery.
Colonial forces finally caught up with Metacom in August , and the sachem was slain by a Christian Indian fighting with the English. The war permanently altered the political and demographic landscape of New England. Between eight hundred and one thousand English and at least three thousand Indians perished in the fourteen-month conflict. Thousands of other Indians fled the region or were sold into slavery.
Sixteen years later, New England faced a new fear: the supernatural. Beginning in early and culminating in , Salem Town, Salem Village, Ipswich, and Andover all tried women and men as witches. Paranoia swept through the region, and fourteen women and six men were executed. Five other individuals died in prison. The causes of the trials are numerous and include local rivalries, political turmoil, enduring trauma of war, faulty legal procedure where accusing others became a method of self-defense, or perhaps even low-level environmental contamination.
Enduring tensions with Indians framed the events, however, and an Indian or African woman named Tituba enslaved by the local minister was at the center of the tragedy. Native American communities in Virginia had already been decimated by wars in and In the summer of , a group of Doeg Indians visited Thomas Mathew on his plantation in northern Virginia to collect a debt that he owed them.
When Mathew refused to pay, they took some of his pigs to settle the debt. The Susquehannock Indians were caught in the crossfire when the militia mistook them for Doegs, leaving fourteen dead. A similar pattern of escalating violence then repeated: the Susquehannocks retaliated by killing colonists in Virginia and Maryland, and the English marshaled their forces and laid siege to the Susquehannock.
The conflict became uglier after the militia executed a delegation of Susquehannock ambassadors under a flag of truce. A few parties of warriors intent on revenge launched raids along the frontier and killed dozens of English colonists. The sudden and unpredictable violence of the Susquehannock War triggered a political crisis in Virginia.
Panicked colonists fled en masse from the vulnerable frontiers, flooding into coastal communities and begging the government for help. But the cautious governor, Sir William Berkeley, did not send an army after the Susquehannock. He worried that a full-scale war would inevitably drag other Indians into the conflict, turning allies into deadly enemies. Berkeley therefore insisted on a defensive strategy centered on a string of new fortifications to protect the frontier and strict instructions not to antagonize friendly Indians. It was a sound military policy but a public relations disaster.
Terrified colonists condemned Berkeley. Colonists denounced the government as a corrupt band of oligarchs more interested in lining their pockets than protecting the people. By the spring of , a small group of frontier colonists took matters into their own hands. They took pains to assure Berkeley that they intended no disloyalty, but Berkeley feared a coup and branded the volunteers as traitors. His drastic response catapulted a small band of anti-Indian vigilantes into full-fledged rebels whose survival necessitated bringing down the colonial government. Bacon and the rebels stalked the Susquehannock as well as friendly Indians like the Pamunkeys and the Occaneechi.
The rebels became convinced that there was a massive Indian conspiracy to destroy the English. Berkeley soon had Bacon arrested and forced the rebel leader into the humiliating position of publicly begging forgiveness for his treason. Bacon swallowed this indignity but turned the tables by gathering an army of followers and surrounding the State House, demanding that Berkeley name him the general of Virginia and bless his universal war against Indians.
Instead, the seventy-year-old governor stepped onto the field in front of the crowd of angry men, unafraid, and called Bacon a traitor to his face. Then he tore open his shirt and dared Bacon to shoot him in the heart, if he was so intent on overthrowing his government. Instead, Bacon resorted to bluster and blasphemy.
Instruction on Christian Freedom and Liberation
Virginia had its general, and Bacon had his war. Berkeley slowly rebuilt his loyalist army, forcing Bacon to divert his attention to the coasts and away from the Indians. But most rebels were more interested in defending their homes and families than in fighting other Englishmen, and they deserted in droves at every rumor of Indian activity.
Everyone accused everyone else of treason, rebels and loyalists switched sides depending on which side was winning, and the whole Chesapeake disintegrated into a confused melee of secret plots and grandiose crusades, sordid vendettas and desperate gambits, with Indians and English alike struggling for supremacy and survival. The rebels steadily lost ground and ultimately suffered a crushing defeat. Bacon died of typhus in the autumn of , and his successors surrendered to Berkeley in January Berkeley summarily tried and executed the rebel leadership in a succession of kangaroo courts-martial.
Before long, however, the royal fleet arrived, bearing over one thousand red-coated troops and a royal commission of investigation charged with restoring order to the colony. The commissioners replaced the governor and dispatched Berkeley to London, where he died in disgrace. The garrison of royal troops discouraged both incursion by hostile Indians and insurrection by discontented colonists, allowing the king to continue profiting from tobacco revenues. The end of armed resistance did not mean a resolution to the underlying tensions destabilizing colonial society. Indians inside Virginia remained an embattled minority, and Indians outside Virginia remained a terrifying threat.
Elite planters continued to grow rich by exploiting their indentured servants and marginalizing small farmers. Most Virginians continued to resent their exploitation with a simmering fury. Virginia legislators did recognize the extent of popular hostility toward colonial rule, however, and improved the social and political conditions of poor white Virginians in the years after the rebellion. The Spanish had been maintaining control partly by suppressing Native American beliefs. Friars aggressively enforced Catholic practice, burning native idols and masks and other sacred objects and banishing traditional spiritual practices.
Several thousand Puebloan warriors razed the Spanish countryside and besieged Santa Fe. They killed four hundred, including twenty-one Franciscan priests, and allowed two thousand other Spaniards and Christian Puebloans to flee. It was perhaps the greatest act of Indian resistance in North American history. Luca Galuzzi photographer , Taos Pueblo, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2. In New Mexico, the Puebloans eradicated all traces of Spanish rule.
They destroyed churches and threw themselves into rivers to wash away their Christian baptisms. They returned in , weakened, to reconquer New Mexico. The late seventeenth century was a time of great violence and turmoil. It would take several more decades before similar patterns erupted in Carolina and Pennsylvania, but the constant advance of European settlements provoked conflict in these areas as well. The Yamasee quickly proved the fears well founded by killing the emissaries and every English trader they could corral.
The Yamasee, like many other Indians, had come to depend on English courts as much as the flintlock rifles and ammunition that traders offered them for slaves and animal skins. Feuds between English agents in Indian country had crippled the court of trade and shut down all diplomacy, provoking the violent Yamasee reprisal. Most Indian villages in the southeast sent at least a few warriors to join what quickly became a pan-Indian cause against the colony.
Yet Charles Town ultimately survived the onslaught by preserving one crucial alliance with the Cherokee. By , the conflict had largely dried up, and the only remaining menace was roaming Yamasee bands operating from Spanish Florida. Most Indian villages returned to terms with Carolina and resumed trading. The lucrative trade in Indian slaves, however, which had consumed fifty thousand souls in five decades, largely dwindled after the war.
The danger was too high for traders, and the colonies discovered even greater profits by importing Africans to work new rice plantations. Herein lies the birth of the Old South, that expanse of plantations that created untold wealth and misery. Indians retained the strongest militaries in the region, but they never again threatened the survival of English colonies.
If a colony existed where peace with Indians might continue, it would be Pennsylvania. While Penn never doubted that the English would appropriate Native lands, he demanded that his colonists obtain Indian territories through purchase rather than violence. Though Pennsylvanians maintained relatively peaceful relations with Native Americans, increased immigration and booming land speculation increased the demand for land. Coercive and fraudulent methods of negotiation became increasingly prominent.
Through treaty negotiation in , Native Delaware leaders agreed to sell Pennsylvania all of the land that a man could walk in a day and a half, a common measurement used by Delawares in evaluating distances. The colonial government thus measured out a tract much larger than the Delaware had originally intended to sell, roughly 1, square miles. As a result, Delaware-proprietary relations suffered. Many Delaware left the lands in question and migrated westward to join Shawnee and other Delaware already living in the Ohio Valley.
There they established diplomatic and trade relationships with the French. Colonists endured a century of struggle against unforgiving climates, hostile natives, and imperial intrigue. They did so largely through ruthless expressions of power. Colonists conquered Native Americans, attacked European rivals, and joined a highly lucrative transatlantic economy rooted in slavery. After surviving a century of desperation and war, British North American colonists fashioned increasingly complex societies with unique religious cultures, economic ties, and political traditions.