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The first part was published in ; the second part appeared in , when it was published with the first part; the third part was published with the first and second parts in The poem shows Ercilla to be a master of the octava real, the complicated stanza in which many other Renaissance epics in Castilian were written. A difficult eight-line unit of syllable verses that are linked by a tight rhyme scheme, the octava real was a challenge few poets met.

It had been adapted from Italian only in the 16th century, and it produces resonant, serious-sounding verse that is appropriate to epic themes. Contrary to the epic conventions of the time, however, Ercilla placed the lesser conquests of the Spanish in Chile at the core of his poem. For Ercilla, the Araucanians were noble and brave— only lacking, as their Classical counterparts did, the Christian faith. Ercilla, the poet-soldier, eventually emerges as the true hero of his own poem, and he is the figure that gives the poem unity and strength.

Ercilla embodied the Renaissance ideal of being at once a man of action and a man of letters as no other in his time was. He was adept at blending personal, lived experience with literary tradition. He was widely acclaimed in Spain. But the Renaissance epic is not a genre that has, 7 Major Spanish Writers 7 as a whole, endured well, and today Ercilla is little known and La Araucana is rarely read except by specialists and students of Spanish and Latin American literatures.

June 5, , Fuente Vaqueros, Granada province, Spain—d. At age 10 he moved with his family to Granada, where he attended a private, secular institute in addition to a Catholic public school. Lorca enrolled in the University of Granada but was a hapless student best known for his extraordinary talents as a pianist. Despite plans to become a musician and composer, he turned to writing in his late teens.

It remained his home in the Spanish capital for the next decade. Early Poetry and Plays A consummate stylist, Lorca sought throughout his career to juxtapose and meld genres. His poems, plays, and prose often evoke other, chiefly popular, forms of music, art, and literature. Both efforts disappointed Lorca and reinforced his inherent resistance to publication, a fact that led to frequent delays in the publication and production of his work.

Lorca preferred to perform his poems and plays, and his histrionic recitations drew innumerable admirers. Critics and audiences ridiculed the drama, and it closed after four performances. In the early s, Lorca began experimenting with short, elliptical verse forms inspired by Spanish folk song, Japanese haiku, and contemporary avant-garde poetics. The intensity of their relationship led Lorca to acknowledge, if not entirely accept, his own homosexuality.

Lorca also sought to articulate in public lectures his own evolving aesthetic. A gifted draughtsman blessed with a startling visual imagination, Lorca produced hundreds of sketches in his lifetime. Romancero Gitano The publication in of Romancero gitano written — 27; Gypsy Ballads , a poetry sequence inspired by the traditional Spanish romance, or ballad, catapulted Lorca into the national spotlight.

A lyrical evocation of the sensual world of the Andalusian Gypsy, the collection enthralled Spanish readers, many of whom mistook Lorca for a Gypsy. But in their wit, objectivity, and metaphorical novelty, they are brazenly contemporary. Las herraduras son negras. Sobre las capas relucen manchas de tinta y de cera. Con el alma de charol vienen por la carretera.

Glistening on their capes are stains of ink and of wax. Their skulls—and this is why they do not cry—are cast in lead. They ride the roads with souls of patent leather. He sought both release and newfound inspiration by visiting New York and Cuba in — With the premiere of his first Andalusian tragedy, Blood Wedding, an expressionist work that recalls ancient Greek, Renaissance, and Baroque sources, Lorca achieved his first major theatrical success and helped inaugurate the most brilliant era of Spanish theatre since the Golden Age. In —34 he went to Buenos Aires, Argentina, to oversee several productions of his plays and to give a lecture series.

Despite his new focus on theatre, Lorca continued to write poetry. He regarded the Catholic reconquest of Granada in as a tragic loss. Divan del Tamarit responds to a widespread revival of interest in ArabAndalusian culture, especially literature, in the s. A las cinco de la tarde. Eran las cinco en punto de la tarde.

Una espuerta de cal ya prevenida a las cinco de la tarde. It was exactly five in the afternoon. A frail of lime ready preserved at five in the afternoon. The rest was death, and death alone at five in the afternoon. During the last two years of his life, Lorca premiered Yerma , the second of his Andalusian tragedies, and completed a first draft of The House of Bernarda Alba, his third tragedy.

On August 16, he was arrested in Granada by Nationalist forces, who abhorred his homosexuality and his liberal views, and imprisoned without a trial. On the night of August 18 or 19 the precise date has never been verified , he was driven to a remote hillside outside town and shot. Garcilaso was born into an aristocratic family that had been prominent in Spanish letters and politics for several centuries.

Entering court life at an early age, he distinguished himself as a soldier, serving Emperor Charles V in Rhodes, Tunis, and Pavia. Serving under the viceroy in southern France, he was mortally wounded in an assault on a fortified position and died several days later. Garcilaso was a consummate craftsman, and he transformed the Italianate metres into Spanish verse of high lyric quality. His most important innovations in this regard were the verse stanzas of the silva and liva both using combinations of 7- and 11syllable lines , which allowed him a new concern with the analytical expression of thought and emotion.

He continually rewrote and polished his poetry, lifting his work high above that of his contemporaries and profoundly influencing the development of Spanish verse. His Baroque, convoluted style, known as Gongorism gongorismo , was so exaggerated by less gifted imitators that his reputation suffered after his death until it underwent a revaluation in the 20th century. He attended the University of Salamanca and achieved fame quickly.

He took religious orders so that he might receive an ecclesiastical benefice but was not ordained priest until he was 55 years old, when he was named chaplain to the royal court in Madrid. His letters, as well as some of his satirical verse, show an unhappy and financially distressed life vexed by the animosity that some of his writings had evoked. There has been a temptation to divide his work into the light-dark and easy-difficult, but 20th-century criticism has shown his compositions to have a unity that is perhaps clouded by the compactness and intensity of style in the longer ones.

Gongorismo derives from a more general base, culteranismo, a Latinizing movement that had been an element in Spanish poetry since the 15th century. The same devices are found in his more popular lyrics. The cold beauty of his lines at last found an appreciative and receptive audience willing to see the value of verse that shunned intimate emotion but that created the purest poetry for its own sake. An English translation by R.

Jones of selected poems was published in May 29, , San Juan, P. A man of frail constitution, he left Madrid for reasons of health. During the Spanish Civil War —39 , he allied himself with the Republican forces, until he voluntarily exiled himself to Puerto Rico, where he spent most of the rest of his life. His poetic output during his life was immense.

A collection of poems —53 in English translation by Eloise Roach was published in August , Sevilla? His several works include Historia de las Indias first printed in A prolific writer and in his later years an influential figure of the Spanish court, Las Casas nonetheless failed to stay the progressive enslavement of the indigenous races of Latin America. The son of a small merchant, Las Casas is believed to have gone to Granada as a soldier in and to have enrolled to study Latin in the academy at the cathedral in Sevilla Seville.

As a reward for his participation in various expeditions, he was given an encomienda a royal land grant including Indian inhabitants , and he soon began to evangelize the Indians, serving as doctrinero, or lay teacher of catechism. Perhaps the first person in America to receive holy orders, he was ordained priest in either or In he took part in the bloody conquest of Cuba and, as priest-encomendero land grantee , received an allotment of Indian serfs.

Although during his first 12 years in America Las Casas was a willing participant in the conquest of the Caribbean, he did not indefinitely remain indifferent to the fate of the 7 Major Spanish Writers 7 natives. In a famous sermon on Aug. Realizing that it was useless to attempt to defend the Indians at long distance in America, he returned to Spain in to plead for their better treatment.

He sailed for America in November Las Casas returned to Spain the next year. In addition to studying the juridical problems of the Indies, he began to work out a plan for their peaceful colonization by recruiting farmers as colonists. The location selected for the new colony was on the Gulf of Paria in the northern part of present-day Venezuela. Las Casas and a group of farm labourers departed for America in December The failure to recruit a sufficient number of farmers, the opposition of the encomenderos of Santo Domingo, and, finally, an attack by the Indians themselves all were factors that brought disaster to the experiment in January Upon his return to Santo Domingo, the unsuccessful priest and political reformer abandoned his reforming activities to take refuge in religious life; he joined the Dominican order in The Historia, which by his request was not published until after his death, is an account of all that had happened in the Indies just as he had seen or heard of it.

But, rather than a chronicle, it is a prophetic interpretation of events. Las Casas interrupted work on the book only to send to the Council of the Indies in Madrid three long letters in , , and , in which he accused persons and institutions of the sin of oppressing the Indian, particularly through the encomienda system. Encouraged by the favourable outcome of this experiment, Las Casas set out for Spain late in , arriving there in According to these laws, the encomienda was not to be considered a hereditary grant; instead, the owners had to set free their Indians after the span of a single generation.

To ensure enforcement of the laws, Las Casas was named bishop of Chiapas in Guatemala, and in July he set sail for America, together with 44 Dominicans. The rigorous enforcement of his regulations led to vehement opposition on the part of the Spanish faithful during Lent of and forced Las Casas to establish a council of bishops to assist him in his task.

But soon his uncompromisingly pro-Indian position alienated his colleagues, and in he returned to Spain. Las Casas then entered upon the most fruitful period of his life. He became an influential figure at court and at the Council of the Indies. The argument was continued in , and its repercussions were enormous. But Las Casas continued to write books, tracts, and petitions, testimony to his unwavering determination to leave in written form his principal arguments in defense of the American Indian.

During his final years Las Casas came to be the indispensable adviser both to the Council of the Indies and to the king on many of the problems relating to the Indies. At the suggestion of Francisco de Toledo, the viceroy of Peru, the king ordered all the works, both published and unpublished, of Las Casas to be collected. His name came into prominence again in the latter half of the 20th century, in connection with the so-called Indigenistas movements in Peru and Mexico.

The modern significance of Las Casas lies in the fact that he was the first European to perceive the economic, political, and cultural injustice of the colonial or neocolonial system maintained by the North Atlantic powers since the 16th century for the control of Latin America, Africa, and Asia. The resulting novels are vivid, realistic, and accurate accounts of 7 The Literature of Spain and Latin America 7 historical events as they must have appeared to those participating in them.

The Napoleonic occupation of Spain and the struggles between liberals and absolutists preceding the death of Ferdinand VII in are respectively treated in the first two series of 10 novels each, all composed in the s. He demonstrated a phenomenal knowledge of Madrid, of which he showed himself the supreme chronicler. He also displayed a deep understanding of madness and abnormal psychological states.

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The books of the 7 Major Spanish Writers 7 fifth series, however, and his last works showed a decline in mental powers compounded by the blindness that overtook him in Juan Ruiz b. He also apparently earned some fame from the popular songs he composed. The Libro contains 12 narrative poems, each describing a different love affair.

The work also contains a parody of a sermon along with other anticlerical satires, several love songs, and a song in praise of small women. It contains vigorous descriptions of basic character types from the lower classes, including one of the first major comic personages in Spanish literature, the old panderess Trotaconventos. The author shows a mastery of popular speech and offers folk sayings and proverbs along with bits of obscure but impressive learning.

Ruiz derived his material from a wide range of literary and other sources, including the Bible, Spanish ecclesiastical treatises, Ovid and other ancient authors, the medieval goliard poets, the fabliaux, various Arabic writings, and popular poetry and songs, impressing upon all these the cheerful cast of mind of a worldly, ribald, curiously learned priest. Tirso de Molina b. March 9? He was also a theologian of repute.

In his plays he sometimes accentuated the religious and philosophical aspects that attracted his theological interest; at other times he drew on his own topographical and historical knowledge, gained while traveling for his order through Spain, Portugal, and the 7 Major Spanish Writers 7 West Indies. Sometimes he borrowed from the vast common stock of Spanish stage material, and at other times he relied on his own powerful imagination. Otherwise his extant output of about 80 dramas—a fragment of the whole—was published chiefly in five Partes between and The second part presents apparently insoluble problems of authenticity, and the authorship of certain other of his plays outside this part has also been disputed.

The first introduced into literature the hero-villain Don Juan, a libertine whom Tirso derived from popular legends but re-created with originality. El burlador rises to a majestic climax of nervous tension when Don Juan is confronted with the statue-ghost of the man he has killed, and deliberately chooses to defy this emanation of his diseased conscience. El condenado por desconfiado dramatizes a theological paradox. It presents the case of a notorious evildoer who has kept and developed the little faith he had and is granted salvation by an act of divine grace, contrasted with the example of a hitherto good-living hermit, eternally damned for allowing his one-time faith to shrivel.

Tirso was at his best when portraying the psychological conflicts and contradictions involved in these master characters.

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At times he reaches Shakespearean standards 7 The Literature of Spain and Latin America 7 of insight, tragic sublimity, and irony. When inspired, Tirso could dramatize personality and make his best characters memorable as individuals. His tragedies and comedies are both famous for their clowns, whose wit has a tonic air of spontaneity.

Tirso was not as consistently brilliant as these great contemporaries, but his finest comedies rival theirs, and his best tragedies surpass them. Miguel de Unamuno b. After attending the Vizcayan Institute of Bilbao, he entered the University of Madrid in and in four years received a doctorate in philosophy and letters. Six years later he became professor of Greek language and literature at the University of Salamanca. In Unamuno became rector of the university, but he was relieved of his duties in after publicly espousing the Spanish author, educator, and Allied cause in World War philosopher Miguel de Unamuno.

He died of a heart attack two months later. Unamuno was an early existentialist who concerned himself largely with the tension between intellect and emotion, faith and reason. At the heart of his view of life was his personal and passionate longing for immortality. Although he also wrote poetry and plays, Unamuno was most influential as an essayist and novelist. He was taught Latin and Castilian in —73 by the poet Vicente Espinel, and the following year he entered the Jesuit Imperial College, where he learned the rudiments of the humanities.

Vega acquired a humanistic education from his abundant though haphazard readings in erudite anthologies. In he took part in the Spanish expedition against the Azores. By this time he had established himself as a playwright in Madrid and was living from his comedias tragicomic social dramas. He also exercised an undefined role as gentleman attendant or secretary to various nobles, adapting his role as servant or panderer according to the situation.

Finally, when Elena abandoned the poet, he wrote such fierce libels against her and her family that he landed in prison. The libel continued in a court case in , which sent him into exile from Castile for eight years. They were forced to marry, and the new husband immediately departed with the Spanish Armada against England. On his return, he passed the remainder of his exile in Valencia, at that time a centre of considerable dramatic activity, and took to the serious writing of plays.

Here, too, he engaged in writing romanceros, or ballad poetry, which had become fashionable. In he was appointed secretary to the duke of Alba, whom he followed to Toledo and then to the ducal estate at Alba de Tormes, where his wife died in childbirth in He auctioned off everything he owned and left for Madrid, where his public concubinage with the widow Antonia Trillo de Armenta caused him another lawsuit He was mercilessly pilloried by his literary enemies for such an opportunistic union.

In he was also named to a sinecure position as a familiar of the Inquisition and then prosecutor promotor fiscal of the Apostolic Chamber. In , in the midst of full literary production—on the road to his comedias—Vega moved his household definitively from Toledo to Madrid. In Madrid, Vega was afflicted by painful circumstances that complicated his life in a period when he was still very creative. These heartbreaks moved the poet to a deep religious crisis.

In he entered the first of several religious orders. From this time on he wrote almost exclusively religious works, though he also continued his theatrical work, which was financially indispensable. In he entered the priesthood, but his continued service as secretary and panderer to his patron, the duke of Sessa, hindered him from obtaining the ecclesiastical benefits he sought. The duke thus permanently recovered his secretary. Vega thereafter became involved in new and scandalous romantic relationships.

His closing years were full of gloom. His last lover, Marta de Nevares, who shared his life from until her death in , lost first her sight and then her sanity in the s. His own death in Madrid in August evoked national mourning. He claimed to have written an average of 20 sheets a day throughout his life and left untouched scarcely a vein of writing then current.

The titles are known of plays and 44 autos, and the texts survive of and 42, respectively. His 18 months in Valencia in —90, during which he was writing for a living, seem to have been decisive in shaping his vocation and his talent. In the formation of the comedia this proved another decisive factor on which Vega fastened instinctively.

It was at this point that Vega picked up the inheritance and, by sheer force of creative genius and fertility of invention, gave the comedia its basic formula and raised it to a peak of splendour. It followed that this was a drama less of character than of action and intrigue that rarely, if ever, grasped the true essence of tragedy. Traditionally his plays have been grouped as religious, mythological, classical, historical foreign and national , pastoral, chivalric, fantastic, and of contemporary manners.

In essence the categories come down to two, both Spanish in setting: the heroic, historical play based on some national story or legend, and the cloak-and-sword drama of contemporary manners and intrigue. The conception of the crown as fount of justice and bulwark of the humble against oppression inspires some of his finest plays. In Fuente Ovejuna the entire village assumes responsibility before the king for the slaying of its overlord and wins his exoneration.

This experiment in mass psychology, the best known outside Spain of all his plays, evoked a particular response from audiences in tsarist Russia. His first acts are commonly his best, with the third a hasty cutting of knots or tying up of loose ends that takes scant account both of probability and of psychology.

There was, too, a limit to his inventiveness in the recurrence of basic themes and situations, particularly in his cloak-and-sword plays. Much of this vast output has withered, but its variety remains impressive. Vega wrote pastoral romances, verse histories of recent events, verse biographies of Spanish saints, long epic poems and burlesques upon such works, and prose tales, imitating or adapting works by Ariosto and Cervantes in the process.

His lyric compositions—ballads, elegies, epistles, sonnets there are 1, of these —are myriad. The treatise provides a clear picture of the principles and conventions of a drama entitled to be called national in its close identification with the social values and emotional responses of the age. Historically, it also includes the literary expression of the highly developed American Indian civilizations conquered by the Spaniards. Over the years, Latin American literature has developed a rich and complex diversity of themes, forms, creative idioms, and styles.

A substantial number of these oral narratives were preserved, thanks to the efforts of friars, priests, and chroniclers, as well as native historians who learned to read and write. In the latter half of the 20th century, much work was done to recover and study pre-Columbian literature, including that part of it created in the aftermath of the European invasion.

These romances narrative poems with eightsyllable lines , which harkened back to the Middle Ages, continued to be composed and sung in all areas where the Spaniards settled. More sophisticated poetry, following Italian Renaissance metres and themes, began to be written shortly thereafter in the capitals of the viceroyalties or vice-kingdoms of Mexico and Peru.

These cities became the centres of European culture in America. Because the viceregal capitals were organized like European courts, literary activity thrived there throughout the colonial period. There were poetic contests, theatre, public recitations, and literary gatherings like those of the academies and universities of Europe. With the development of the printing press in the 15th century, the Spanish empire depended more and more on the written word. The descriptions Columbus wrote in his letters and reports to Spain of his voyages served as the basis for later accounts of the New World.

The Earliest Literary Activity Although there must have been some early stirrings in Hispaniola, literary activity in the Western sense—that is, written forms that had a conscious literary purpose and employed an alphabetic language—began with the Hispanicization of Mexico City.

The former Aztec capital was already a major metropolis when the Spaniards took over, and they strove earnestly to compete with the institutions of the vanquished, particularly in religion but also in theatre, poetry, and all forms of oral literature. Mexico City soon became a cultural centre, with poets, many of them born in Spain, who were attuned to every trend back in Europe.

The first Mexican-born poet to attain renown was Francisco de Terrazas, who composed fine sonnets in the Petrarchan style, probably during the last half of the 16th century. The epic form proved to be the most important manifestation of Renaissance-style poetry in the first century of the colonial period. The young soldier and courtier began the poem while engaged in campaigns against the Araucanian Indians of what is today Chile. While the poem has been praised for the authenticity lent by the fact that the poet was a participant in the wars he describes, and also for the very positive portrayal of the Araucanians, its deepest value lies in the poetic genius Ercilla brought to it.

He was a powerful and refined poet, the supreme master of the eight-line octava real stanza in the Spanish language, and he had a great sense of the dramatic. He has never achieved the popularity of Ercilla, however. Written in Cuba by the Canarian Silvestre de Balboa y Troya de Quesada, it is about the defeat of a French pirate who abducts a local ecclesiastic for ransom, and it reflects anti-Protestant fervour in the Spanish empire.

This group of documents includes narrative accounts, legal documents depositions, reports, arguments, etc.

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In spite of these often attractive flaws, his accounts constitute a substantial legacy in the discourse of the West. Whereas Columbus was a navigator who could write a little, Peter Martyr was steeped in culture; during the 16th century his elegant Latin tract enjoyed a wide readership all over Europe.

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While the discovery of the Caribbean was an astonishing event to Europeans, the discovery of Mexico was dazzling. Here were hitherto unknown civilizations that 7 Latin American Literature 7 not only were populous and spread over vast territories but also had splendid cities and complex forms of government, arts, crafts, and religious practices.

He described battles but also customs, costumes, rituals, and the elaborate protocol of the Aztec court. It is an invaluable source of information on both the common lives of the soldiers and the customs of the natives they defeated. While not literary in the formal sense of Renaissance poetics, the Historia verdadera is literature in a modern sense in that it places authenticity above all rules of style or decorum. Of all the books to have come out of colonial Latin America, his is the one still most read.

Originally a Spanish settler, Las Casas was appalled at the treatment of the Indians by the rapacious Spaniards. In Las Casas also commenced the Historia de las Indias selections appear in History of the Indies , a voluminous history of the conquest of the New World. It did, probably beyond his expectations. Written in a dramatic style and perhaps exaggerating the atrocities perpetrated on the Indians, it was both a polemic and an appeal. He remained a controversial figure in Spain until the 20th century. Historians of the New World By the turn of the 17th century, most of the conquest of America had been accomplished, and historians, some appointed by the Spanish crown, attempted to provide a comprehensive overview of the event.

The most significant among these new writers, however, was Garcilaso de la Vega, El Inca, the son of a Spanish conquistador and an Inca woman of noble lineage. Because of his combined heritage, Garcilaso, who was born in Peru but spent most of his adult life in Spain, is commonly considered to be the first truly Latin American writer. The Comentarios reales tells the history of the Inca empire, providing a detailed description of all aspects of Inca culture. He gives a dramatic account that 7 Latin American Literature 7 combines autobiography, ethnography, and history, all cast in an elegant and precise prose style.

Garcilaso is the most prominent of the native historians of the conquest because his book is of such a high literary quality and also because of his mixed heritage. Its author accuses the Spaniards of not abiding by their own Christian doctrine, which he himself has adopted, and demands the restoration of native leaders to local rule. While historians were interpreting the events of the conquest and debating their consequences, literary life in the Spanish empire continued unabated. Renaissance poetry, as well as other cultural manifestations, soon evolved into Baroque forms, particularly in the 7 The Literature of Spain and Latin America 7 viceroyalties of Mexico and Peru.

He soon had numerous and ardent praisers and detractors in Spain and the viceroyalties. Among the poets, whatever their status, he was mostly admired and imitated. In fact, gongorismo is practically a whole poetic movement in colonial Latin America, affecting poetry through the 17th century and well into the 18th. Baroque poetry is known for its vicious satires. Viceregal courts outdid the Spanish court in pomposity, constantly providing ample targets for their poets to exercise satirical wit. The Spanish-born wanderer lived for some time in Tucuman and Lima, where he turned a caustic eye on colonial society.

He was surpassed in his criticism of colonial doings, however, by Juan del Valle y Caviedes, a shopkeeper who was also Spanish-born. Caviedes, the best-known satirical poet of the Barroco de Indias, focused on the frailties of the human body, to the extent that some readers believed him to be syphilitic as well as misanthropic. These are given over to ridiculing the hapless doctors of Lima, who killed more often than they cured. The said brook is portrayed as a bolting horse that smashes himself against rocks at the bottom of a waterfall, presenting an image of grotesque beauty typical of the Baroque.

She rose to fame from illegitimacy and a precarious childhood. Invited to the viceregal court, she shone there and was later admitted to a convent, where she suffered a saintly death while assisting the victims of an epidemic. As a writer, she was versatile, putting forth poetry, prose, and plays. Her secular and religious plays are well-crafted. Along with Garcilaso de la Vega, but surpassing his literary accomplishments in both quality and quantity, Sor Juana stands at the apex of colonial letters.

Her modern perspectives foreshadow the work of the 18th century and beyond. The 18th Century Following the War of the Spanish Succession —14 , the first Spanish Bourbons set out to put their kingdoms in order and to win the hearts and minds of their subjects. Philip V —24, —46 , Luis I , and Ferdinand VI —59 enacted new tax laws, overhauled domestic and international defense, converted the aristocracy into a service nobility, and enlisted the literati to frame these changes as a return to Castilian tradition.

The culmination of their vision was the reign of Charles III —88 , who pursued fiscal and political changes in Spanish America known as the Caroline reforms and expelled the Jesuits in The Viceroyalty of New Granada now Colombia, Venezuela, and parts of Ecuador and Peru became an important centre for scientific study and commerce.

It had foundered after its initial founding in , was suppressed in , and was reestablished in Numerous Spanish and other European scientists traveled to New Granada and the other viceroyalties of Spanish America during the first half of the century. There they measured and categorized plants, stones, and animals, led by the 7 The Literature of Spain and Latin America 7 Enlightenment impulse to dominate nature through intellectual rather than physical force. Spanish merchants, too, flocked to the viceregal capitals, where they hoped to enrich themselves, marry wealthy Creole women, and become members of the ruling clans.

Before and after their expulsion, the Jesuit humanists like 18th-century Italian and Spanish humanists in general looked to Renaissance authorities on rhetoric and poetics. They traced a continuum between the earlier humanists and contemporary authorities on physics and optics. Exiled to northern Italy, some of these Jesuits were among the first Spanish Americans to issue calls for independence. Historiographies In addition to the accounts of Spanish America earlier penned by European explorers, philosophers, and naturalists, important historiographical works were written by Creoles or by Spaniards who had lived most of their lives in one or more of the viceroyalties.

Alongside his defense of Creoles in Havana, Arrate laid out economic statistics and policies for Cuba inspired by modern economic theorists. A merchant and provincial magistrate whom the Spanish crown commissioned to escort the Jesuits out of Peru in , he conducted an inspection of the postal system of the viceroyalty in — His satirical account of that tour, El lazarillo de ciegos caminantes ? Its most obvious debt is to Menippean satire, since it parodies elements of the travelogue, almanac, natural history, newspaper, and memoir.

The History of Mexico. For his invectives against the Spanish crown and church officials in Santo Domingo, he was harassed and imprisoned. He fled to Spain, where he became a member of the economic society of Madrid. Pediatrician and Cardiologist. VHI advisor and collaborator. Course Summary. Chastity Formation. Module 2 - Contraception Vs. Natural Family Planning Nfp. Module 4 - Abortion Part I. Module 5 - Abortion Part II. Purchase per module online. More Information. Those students who cannot or do not want to purchase the course modules online can buy them in another way.

Please contact Adolfo J. Thank you. HLI main site - English. Adolfo J. Multiple Choice Test 2 pages. Lesson 2: Social Consequences of Contraception 4 pages. Lesson 3: Natural Family Planning 4 pages. And there he learned that Don Diego de Almagro had wished to lead the city of Cuzco to revolt, for he had become aware that his majesty, with the news brought by Hernando Pizar- ro to him, had granted him a hundred leagues more of territory beyond the limits of Francisco Pizarro's territory, which it was said did not extend quite to the city of Cuzco.

Against this view Juan Pizarro and Gonzalo Pizarro, brothers of the gover- nor, with a large number of others who joined them, protested, and every day they were in conflict with Don Diego and with Captain Soto, who was one of his adherents; but at last he was not able to go out with him, for the majority of the cabildo took the side of the governor and his brothers.

And they formed a new agreement and company in this manner. And some say that Almagro swore to abandon all interest in Cuzco and in the region for a hundred and twenty leagues farther south although his Majesty might concede it to him. Well-founded re- ports that had been made public awakened a profound interest in America, and when to these reports there were added wildly extravagant tales of rich principalities there that miglit be plundered, a wave of excite- ment swept members of all classes towards the port of departure. Men of birth and cultivation were in the race with ignorant and rough adventurers.

Like many others of his time, he left no record of his origin, save that he was born in the town of Llerena in Estrema- dura. Even the fleet with which he sailed is not positively known; but it is probable that he went with Rodrigo Duran, who left Cadiz in , and entered the bay of Carta- gena in November of that year. He had been sent to San Sebas- tian to inquire into the conduct of Gover- nor Heredia, and after the dismissal of that officer, he departed for the interior.

In view of the hardships they en- countered the men were disposed to revolt, and asked to be led back to San Sebastian, but the determination of the leader to ad- vance finally persuaded the soldiers to follow ; but on arriving at Cali they refused to proceed further, and Vadillo went on to Popayan without them. From that point he went to Panama, where he was arrested and taken to Spain by way of Cartagena.

The soldiers of Vadillo, who had been a year in the wilderness, now established themselves in the Cauca valley, where Rob- ledo, under Benalcazar, had founded settle- ments. For about six years, ordinarily supposed to be critical years of a youth's education, Cieza de Leon had been in America,sharing the hardships, the dangers, and the demoralizing influences of expatri- ated soldiers and settlers in an inliospitable climate and in the presence of unfriendly Indians, lie settled at Cartago, and re- mained in the valley five or six years. In the dedication of one of his works to the king he thus made reference to his zeal: "Oftentimes when the other soldiers were reposing, I was tiring myself by writing.

Neither fatigue nor the ruggedness of the country, nor the mountains and rivers, nor intolerable hunger and suffering, have ever been sufficient to obstruct my two duties, namely, writing and following my flag and my captain without fault. The boy had grown to be a mature man of thirty jwhose physical and intellectual facul- ties had been developed under the tuition of sixteen years of rough life. With other loyal soldiers he responded to the call, and marched from Popayan by way of Pasto, Quito, and Riobamba to the sea, and along the shore to Lima.

He moreover witnessed the overthrow of Gonzalo Pizarro and was present at the exe- cution of both Pizarro and Carbajal. Later he went to Cuzco. At this time Inca Gar- cilaso de la Vega, then eleven years of age, was at school in that city, and the two per- sons who were destined to become pre- eminent among the early historians of Peru were here either completing or beginning their training for the literary undertakings that were before them. Cieza de Leon had prepared himself for his work in the camp, and in extensive journeys over the country he was to describe.

He was then studying Latin under the instruc- tion of Canon Cuellar. In Cieza de Leon visited the province of Charcas, and' in the ninety-fifth chapter of his Travels he wrote: " I went to see the cities in that region for which purpose the President Gasca gave me letters of introduction to the corregi- doreSjthat I might learn all that was worthy of notice. At Lima he completed the notes of his jour- ney in September, Among these the greatest and richest was formerly in the city of Cuzco, for even in the time of the Spani- 10 See Markham's translation of Cieza de Le6n's Cro- nica del Perii, Hakluyt Society.

But this market or fair at Cuzco did not equal the superb one at Po- tosi where the traffic was so great that, among the Indians alone, without including Christians, twenty-five or thirty thousand golden pesos exchanged hands daily. This is wonderful, and I beheve that no fair in the world can be compared to it I saw this fair several times, and it is held in a plain near the town.

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In one place there were baskets of coca, the most valuable pro- duct in these parts. In another place there were bales of cloth and fine rich shirtings. Here were heaps of maize, dried potatoes, and other provisions, there great quantities of the best meat in the country. Great numbers of Yanaconas, who are j free Indians with the right of serving whom I they please, flocked to the fair, and the I prettiest girls from Cuzco and all parts of I the kingdom were to be met with there. I " I observed that many frauds were com- mitted, and that there was little truth spoken.

The value of articles was not great, and cloths, linens, and Hollands were sold almost as cheap as in Spain. Indeed, I saw things sold for so small a price that they would have been considered cheap in Seville. The writer found interest in almost every phase of the country and its people, and scholars have accepted his views and conclusions as generally worthy of cre- dence. Through the excellence of its style the book has proved to be one of the most attractive accounts of early Peru, and ofj the western part of the territory now claim- 1 ed by the repubhc of Colombia.

Prescott refers to Cieza de Leon as! His Cronica del Peru should more properly bej styled an itinerary, or rather geography of, Peru. It gives a minute topographical view of the country at the time of the con- quest; of its provinces and towns, both In- dian and Spanish; its flourishing sea-coasts; j its forests, valleys, and interminable ranges ' of mountains in the interior, with many in- teresting particulars of the existing popula- tion — while scattered here and there may be found notices of their early history and social policy.

In the prologue of his work the author announces the plan of this Part. He proposed to treat of the government of the Incas, of their great deeds and policy; to " describe the superb and magnificent temples which they built, j the roads of wonderful size which they made, and other great things that were found in this kingdom. I shall also give an account in this book of what the Indians say concerning the deluge, and how the Incas magnify the grandeur of their origin. Only certain sections of the third and fourth Parts have been printed.

The second Part remained in manuscript 12 Conquest of Peru, vo! Manuel Gonzalez de la Rosa. In it was edited by Marcos Jimenez de la Espada, and printed at Ma- drid. Three years later an English trans- lation of it, by Sir Clements R.

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Markham, was issued by the Hakluyt Society. In collecting the information on which this Part is based, Cieza de Leon sought from the Indians what they knew concerning the inhabitants of Peru before the period of the Incas. After setting forth in this second Part what he was able to find out concerning the Indians before the period of the Incas, Cieza de Leon devotes his pages especially to the institutions and ceremonies of the monarchy, and to the history of the Incas in the line of their succession down to Ata hualpa.

And it is also to be noted that be- sides this, it was the custom among them, and a law much kept and observed, for each king, during his reign, to select three or four old men, known for their intelligence and ability, who were instructed to retain in their memory all the events that happened in the provinces, whether they were pros- perous or whether they were the reverse, and to compose songs to be handed down, so that the history of the reign might be had in remembrance in after times.

But these songs could not be recited or made public, except in the presence of the lord, and those who were charged with this duty, during the reign of the king, were not allowed to say anything which referred to him. Know that the events which occurred in the days of thy fathers are these. They could very well do this for there were among them some men with very good memories, sound judgments, and subtle genius, and full of reasoning power, as we bear witness, who have heard them even in these our days. Only a part of this work has been published, the first part of the Guerra de Quito, edited by Jimenez de la Espada.

This was printed in Madrid in The fate of. The part here published is the third book of the Civil Wars of Peru, and gives an account of the conflict between Gonzalo Pizarro and Blasco Nufiez Vela near the city of Quito. It describes the jour- ney of the viceroy and his arrival in Peru, the effect of the introduction of the New Laws, the appeal to Gonzalo Pizarro to become the leader of the revolt against the viceroy, the reception of Nunez Vela at Lima, and the course of the rebellion until a short time before the triumph of Gonzalo Pizarro and the death of the viceroy near Quito.

Geography and description of I Leon's Peru; 2. History of the Incas and of the ancient civilization of Peru; 3. Discovery I and conquest of Peru; 4. The civil wars of 13 Tercero libra de las guerras civiles del Peru, el cual se llama la guerra de Quito. A translation of Cier. Markham, and published for the Hakluyt Society in London in In his Obras completas viii, Barros Arana dis- cusses the question as to what extent this programme was carried out by the author. His route to the port of departure led him to Medina del Campo, thence to Seville and down the Guadal- quivir to San Lucar.

After two months spent in the islands, he set out for America, and in the course of time we find him involved in the unfortunate enterprises of Governor Ortal in Venezuela, attracted by the governor's promise of riches. That he did not suffer a worse fate was due in a large measure to the care taken of him by Antonio de Castiglioni, a priest, who ac- companied him to the island of Margarita.

Later he embarked for Porto Rico, and sail- ed thence to Santo Domingo, where he was in , and where he remained for eleven months. During some parts of these journeys, he suffered ex- tremely from hunger, particularly in Nicar- agua. Of his last years in America and his return to Italy, he gives the following ac- count: 1 " Three years after my arrival in Peru, I found myself possessed of some thousands of ducats, and quite tired of remaining in j Gasca's these countries.

Moreover,President Gasca j order had ordered all foreigners to quit the coun- try, in consequence of its having been re- ; ported to him by some Spaniards that the Levantines, that is that we, were false and Leaves America!

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Therefore, when I was at Guaya- quil, I availed myself of a large boat that arrived there laden with merchandise from Panama, to return to my own country. Accordingly, as soon as the master of it was ready, I embarked on the 8th of May, We sailed, and in the port of Zalaga we found President Gasca, who was going to Panama to cross over to Spain. He ordered our master to sail in company with him, for otherwise he was going alone. But as the ' bark had to take in a cargo of maize, the I master requested to be left behind on ac- account of business.

The President start- ed, and we remained until the vessel was loaded. Sailing soon after this, we arrived atManta,where the vessel struck a rock and sank, all the passengers and crew, however, were saved, with the greater part of their gold and silver. There I had a long and severe disease, so that at the end of four years, being then in Guatemala, and ships arriving from Spain, I went to Puerto de los Caballos, whence I sailed; but after j navigating a few days, when we were near I the island of Cuba, there arose a very severe I storm, which drove the ship on shore, and almost all the specie on board was lost; scarcely could the crew be saved.

After thirty-four days of hard labour and great dangers, we entered the port of Havana, expecting to find the fleet there; but it had sailed eight days before for Spain. We soon sailed, with the help of Providence, and in thirty- nine days, though undergoing a frightful storm on the voyage, we reached a Portu- j guese island, commonly called Madera, j " Having taken on board there bread and i wine and other provisions, we again set sail.

At the end of eight days, on the 13th of September, , we entered the port of San Lucar de Barameda, and thence proceeded to Seville. As soon as I was cleared, I went j to Cadiz, and having embarked in an urea, j at the end of two months I reached Genoa,! When I reflect, it seems to me impossible that a human body could have undergone so much — die un corpo hu- inano habbia potuto siipportar iaiilo. It is especially valuable as a critical investigation of the principal causes i and events of Giron's rebellion.

Fernan- dez's Relacidn 14 The title of this work is: Relacion. Antonio de Mendoza. Tt was published by J. Ill, p. Alonso deGongora Marmolejo. Pedro de Ma- rino de Lover a. At the beginning of the second half of the sixteenth century a temporary calm brood- ed over the affairs of Peru. President Gasca had allayed the factional disturb- ances, but his administration, if it had pro- duced peace, had nevertheless brought little satisfaction to the contending parties.

A new attempt was now made to set up a vice- roy. With the prestige of his long reign in Mexico, he undertook the task of estab- lishing order in the unorganized colony, but he died the following year, leaving the gov- ernmental authority again in the hands of the audiencia. In 1 Andres Hurtado de Mendoza accepted the vacant office, and a line of more or less distinguished successors continued the viceregal administration to the end of the century.

Lima gradually increased in population and acquired many of the institutions which later characterized its social life, such as the university, the tribunal of the Crusada, the inquisition, and various monasteries. These men were better equipped by education than most of the writers who had described the events of the conquest from personal observation.

Acosta was a professor of theology in Lima, and the Church expected to have its influ- ence extended by his eloquence as a preacher. His principal work is entitled Historia natural y vioral de las Indias. The first book deals chiefly with Peruvian afifairs, but the fifth, sixth and seventh books refer extensively to conditions and instituti ms in Mexico. The author was born in Spain in , and his boyhood was passed with his parents in the town of Me- dina del Campo.

He became a Jesuit in and went to America in From Panama he pro- ceeded to Peru, and arrived at Callao in 1. Peru was then under the vigorous rule of Viceroy Francisco de Toledo , who at this time was absent from Lima, engaged in making an inspection of the viceroyalty. Acosta was ordered to join the viceroy's other assistants, particu- larly Polo de Ondegardoand JuanMatienzo. He accompanied Toledo, and was a member of the expedition directed against the Chiri- guana Indians. After his return to Lima he resumed his duties as professor of theology, and retained this post until the middle of , when he became rector of the Colegio Maximo de San Pablo.

The next year he was promoted to the office of provincial of the Jesuit pro- vince of Peru, succeeding the first provin- cial, Portillo. Acostas term as provincial expired in The Jesuits had established a college at Juli to facilitate the study of the native languages. Holguin had resided there, and his Quichua grammar is an im- portant contribution to knowledge of that language. Bertonio, also sometime a resi- dent there, performed a similar service by his Aymara dictionary. Acosta removed from Upper Peru to Lima near the end of Toledo's reign.

The vice- roy's administration, through his prolific and generally wise legislative activity, con- tributed greatly to the orderly establish- ment of the viceroyalty, but by his unjust condemnation and execution of the Inca he incurred the displeasure of the king, and died in disgrace. Under Martin Enriquez i Toledo's successor, was held the third ecclesiastical Council of Lima.

At this council he was theo- logical adviser, and was appointed to edit the acts of the council. The first four books treat of the natural ; history of the Indies. Of these the first and second were written in Latin, while Acosta was in Peru, and were translated into 2 It was reprinted in Seville in ; at Barcelona the same year; at Madrid in and i6ro; in Italian at Venice in ; in French at Paris in ; in Dutch at Haarlem in ; in Latin at Paris in , and in , , and ; in Latin at Frankfort in i6o3 and ; in German at Frankfort in i6or; in English at London in There is also reported a Flemish translation of The following are some of his other works: De tiatiira noviorbis,.

The fifth, sixth and seventh books contain' what the author calls the moral history oi. The numerous editions of this work indi- cate somewhat the strength of the early de- mand for information regarding America. Large numbers of persons were solicitous to know about the climate and its fitness for securing human health; the metals, plants, and animals; the rites and ceremonies ; of the inhabitants; the laws and govern- ment; and the wars with the Indians. The j nature of the contents of the work suggest- 1 ed the designation of the author as the Pliny of the New World.

After an extensive discussion of the views held by ancient writers, sacred and profane, concerning the geography and the natural phenomena of the Indies, Acosta touches on the project of cutting a canal across the Isthmus. As in times past we finde it writ- ten, that for the same consideration they gave over the enterprise to win the Red Sea with the Nile, in the time of King Seso- stris, and since, in the Empire of the Otto- mans.

But for my part, I hold such dis- courses and propositions for vaine, although this inconvenient should not happen, the which I will not hold for assured, I believe there is no humane power able to beat and breake downe those strong and impenetrable mountains, which God hath placed betwixt the two seas, and hath made them most hard rockes, to withstand the furie of two seas.

These rootes ; are like the ground nuttes; they are small I rootes that cast out many leaves. They j gather the Papas, and dry it well in the I Sunne. In this realme there ' is great trafficke of Chunu, the which they j carry to the mines of Potosi; they likewise ' eat of these Papas boyled or roasted.

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There j is one sweete kinde which grows in hot i places, whereof they do make certain j sauces and minced meats which they call i In writing of coca, Acosta calls attention! Book IV, ch. Their use is to carry it in their mouthes, chawing it and sucking out the juyce, but they swallow it not. They say it gives them great courage, and is very pleasing unto them. Book IV, chap. His father was the son of Alonso de Hinestrosa de Vargas, whose wife was Blanca Suarez de Fi- gueroa, a descendant of that Garcilaso de la Vega on whom the name was originally conferred for his famous duel with the gigantic Moor on the Vega of Granada.

This name was adopted by the historian's father as that of a maternal an- cestor. The son of Hinestrosa de Vargas thus became Garcilaso de la Vega. This Garcilaso de la Vega was born in the city of Badajoz in Estremadura in He became a member of Alvarado's ill-fated statement: "The traffic of coca in Potosi doth yearly raouiit to above half a million of dollars, for that they use foure score and teiiue or foure score and fifteen thousand baskets every year. After Alvarado's surrender to Almagro, Garcilaso de la Vega entered the service of Pizarro, and was sent to subdue the natives about the port of Buenaventura.

Owing to the difficulties of the march and the loss of a large part of his men he was obliged to abandon the under- taking. He then went to Lima, where he found Pizarro besieged by the Indians. His next service was in the campaign for the relief of Cuzco, that appeared to be in danger of falling into the hands of the in- surgent natives. During the conflict between Pizarro and Almagro that resulted in the death of Alma- gro, Garcilaso de la Vega was established at Cuzco.

She was a grand- daughter of Inca Tupac Yupanqui. Her father was a brother of the distinguished king, Huayna Capac, the twelfth in the line as given by Cieza de Leon. She was thus a cousin of the unfortunate Atahualpa. The childhood and youth of the younger Garcilaso was spent in Cuzco, the capital from which members of his mother's family had ruled the famous Indian kingdom.

During these early years his father was engaged in the civil wars that afflicted the unhappy country; at first on the side of Pizarro, and later taking part in the rebellion led byGon- zalo Pizarro against the first viceroy of Peru, Blasco Nuiiez de Vela. One of the earliest recollections of the historian was the triumphal entry of the forces into Cuzco after Gonzalo Pizarro had put dowri his enemies. Garcilaso de la Vega, the elder, once more changed his allegiance; he deserted the cause of Gonzalo Pizarro, and fled from Cuzco to Lima.

But the party of the viceroy, which he had hoped to join was overthrown, and the viceroy had departed. Although pardoned by Gonzalo Pizarro, Garcilaso de la Vega went over to the forces of Gasca at the battle of Jaquijaguana in Thus in the turmoil and rebellions and the quieter life that fol- lowed, the younger Garcilaso de la Vega, was in a more favourable position than any other historian had occupied for acquiring a correct view of the history and institu- tions of the two races here in conflict.

In short, they omitted nothing relating to the flourishing period of their history in the course of these conversations. After his father's death he deter- mined to go to Spain. Here he was received with kindness by his father's relatives, and such generosity by others as might be ac- corded to one born in America. On his retire- ] ment from active military service, he be- j came a resident of Cordoba, where he was 1 compelled by his poverty to adopt a very j modest style of living. He was not only in debt when he left the army, but under aj certain cloud of public disfavour by reason of his father's connexion with Gonzalo Garcilaso!

It is quite possible that his consciousness of this prejudice deepened his piety for his native land and the kingly race from which he was descended and persuaded him to set forth their virtues and the nobler quahties of their rule, and not to omit the wrongs they had suffered at the hands of the Spaniards. The author died in and was buried in the cathedral of Cordoba. A second edition was published at Madrid in , and a third edition at the same place in Much of the consideration enjoyed by Gar- cilaso and the popularity of his writings He was, moreover, able to make use of earlier writings, such as those of Cieza de Le6n, Zarate, L6pez de G6mara, and Acosta, and also of the papers of the missionary.

Bias Valera, that were afterwards destroyed in at the sacking of , Cadiz by the English. Bardouin, in ; and a German translation, by G. Bottger, in at Nordhausen. He gives the i conquests of each successive Ynca, men- 1 tioning the places through which the con-! He enumerates three I hundred and twenty places in Peru, yet, in I describing the marches, he does not make a j single mistake, nor give one of these places ] out of its order, or in the wrong position. I When Garcilaso's routes of each of the con- I quering Yncas are placed on a map, they! He stood forth as counsel for his un- fortunate countrymen,pleading the cause of!

He pictures forth a state of society, such as an Utopian philosopherwouldhardly venture todepict. We are dazzled by the gorgeous spectacle it perpetually ex- hibits, and dehghted by the variety of amus- ing details and animated gossip sprinkled over its pages. The story of the action is perpetually varied by discussions on topics illustrating its progress, so as to break up the monotony of the narrative, and afford an agreeable relief to the reader.

This is true of the first part of his great work. In the second there was no longer room for such discussion. But he has supplied the place by garrulous reminiscences, personal anecdotes, incidental adventures, and a host of trivial details — trivial in the eyes of the pe- dant — which historians have been too willing to discard as below the dignity of history. All excited admiration, as may still be seen by their ruins,though these remains give but an inadequate idea of the complete edifice. Its magnificence would be incred- ible to those who have not seen it, and even those who have gazed upon it with atten- tion are induced to imagine, and even to be- lieve, that such works must have been com- pleted by enchantment, and that they were made by demons rather than by men.

For the multitude of stones, so many and of such size, that are placed on the three cir- cling lines being more like rocks than stones , excite astonishment and wonder, as to how they could have been cut from the quarries whence they were brought. F or these Indians ha d neither iron nor steel lor cutting and workmg th e stones. They were drawn by the force of men's hands, hauling at stout cables passed round them. But not only have they not maintained it; they have themselves dis- mantled it to build the private houses they have now in Cuzco.

In order to save the cost, delay, and trouble which the Indians expended on preparing dressed stones for! II, He was born at Alcala de Henares about His father was Bartolome Sarmiento, a native of Pontevedra in Galicia, whose wife was of a Biscayan family named Gamboa. Pedro passed the period of his childhood and youth in his father's house at Ponte- vedra, near the little port of Eayona; but at the age of eighteen he entered the military service of Spain, and was a soldier from to , when he succumbed to the desire to seek adventures and fortune in America. His sojourn in Mexico and Guatemala left no important record in the history of the period.

In he arrived 11 Ibid. The rebellions of Gonzalo Pizarro and Giron had been put down, but the spirit of Siltion discontent and hostihty to the government was manifest in many quarters. The judges of the audiencia were leaders of op- posing factions; the corregidores were sup- porting practically independent military forces, and their unlawful acts imposed intolerable burdens on persons subject to their authority.

Everywhere there were smouldering embers of sedition. The vice- roy faced this condition of affairs with a grim determination to bring peace to the I troubled society. He gathered and held subject to his order the arms and munitions that were scattered among the corregidores. The prominent disturbers of the peace he disarmed and sent into exile. And to furnish a vent to the restlessness of adventurers, he encouraged the organization of exploring expeditions, of which the most notorious was that of Pedro de Ursua, that finally fell under the control of the brutal Lope de Aguirre.

Another phase of the viceroy's activity was the setting up of the viceregal estab- lishment, where the vice-queen presided, and introduced much of the ceremonious life of a European Court. At this time the ques- tion of the aims and ambitions of the In- carial family began to excite inquiry if not alarm, and the prominence of this subject induced Sarmiento to study seriously the history of the Incas. This subject claimed his attention for a number of years after his arrival in Lima.

But during his residence at the capital he was persecuted by the In- quisition. The charges against him were trivial, and for one alleged offence he was condemned to the absurd punishment of hearing mass in the cathedral at Lima, divested of his clothing and holding a candle in his hand. But by appealing to the Pope he was re- leased from the penalty of banishment, and permitted to reside in Cuzco and other parts of Peru until Still, this senseless per- secution was continued until his public ser- vices obtained for him the protection of the government.

During these ten years he made various journeys throughout the country in pursuit of information concerning the Incas. Of the results of these investigations there re- remains Segunda parte de la historia general llamada indica. Other parts, if any others were written, have not come to light.

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The work as designed by the author was to consist of three parts. The second, and apparently the only part written, contains the history of the Incas. Sarmiento fixes the beginning of the Inca dynasty at the year , thus making its continuance a little less than a thousand years. The execution of this sentence was not then practicable, for Sarmiento was at that time engaged in a campaign against the Chiri- guanos, eastward of the Andes, and after his return the civil authorities persuaded the inquisitors that the sentence should be revoked.

See reprodurtion of 2nd title page of Sarmiento's MS. At this time the viceroy, Francisco de Toledo , interfered, ordered that Sar- miento should be released, held him in the service of the government, and took him under his special protection. In , when Drake appeared in Peruvian waters, Sarmiento led an expedition in pursuit of him, but failed to overtake him. On his return, he received the viceroy's orders to proceed to the Strait of Magellan, in order to intercept Drake there on his voyage back to England. At the same time he was under orders to fortify the strait so as to prevent the passage of explorers or pirates who might undertake to follow Drake.

Other navigators had entered the strait before Sarmiento — Magellan in , Lo- aysa and Cano in , Alcazava in , and Drake in ; but Sarmiento's account of his voyage virtually superseded all re- ports made by previous explorers. Sarmiento was appointed to be the governor of the colony, but the command of the fleet was entrusted to the incompetent Diego Flores de Valdes, and his incompetence rather than the storms encountered caused the ruin of the enterprise.

This collection consists of five documents. The first is called Voyage to the Strait of Magellan, and gives an account of Sar- miento's passage through the strait, with such accuracy of detail as to elicit the com- mendation of later navigators and sur- veyors. The second document was writ- ten in Rio de Janeiro in It refers to the passage through the strait, the voyage to Spain, the preparation of the fleet under Flores de Valdes, and gives some account of what happened to the fleet.

The last document gives some account of the tragic fate of the settlers, who waited in vain for the return of ships with provisions, and who distributed themselves along the shore, in order to sup- port themselves with shell-fish picked up on the beach; but the supply was inadequate, and one after another they died of starva- tion and exposure. The appearance of the ships of Thomas Cavendish was the last hope of the survivors, and when these ships sailed away, taking only one man as a guide the remnant of the colony went speedily to its tragic end.

When he was about to set out there came to him two Tallanas Indians, sent by the Curacas — local governors under the Incas — of Payta and Tumbez, to report to him that there had arrived by sea, which they call ' cocha,' a people with different clothing and with beards, and that they brought animals like large sheep. The chief of them was be- Heved to be Viracocha, which means the god of these people, and he brought with him many Viracochas, which is as much as to say ' gods.

Atahualpa gave thanks that he should have come in his time, and he sent back the messengers with features of the ceremony were fastening over the Inca's shoulders the vacolla, or mantle, and clasping about his wrist the chapana or bracelet. He resolved not to go to Cuzco until he had seen what this arrival was, and what the Viracochas in- tended to do. Huascar was being brought to Caxamarca by Atahualpa's order, as has already been said. Chalco Chima, obeying this order, set out with Huascar and the captains and relations who had escaped the butchery of Cusi Yupanqui.

Atahualpa asked Don Francisco Pizarro why he wanted to see his brother. Pizar- ro replied that he had been informed that 14 Sarmiento, History of the Incas, Hakluyt Society, London, , chap, xviii. Atahualpa feared that if Huascar came alive, the Governor Don Francisco Pizarro would be informed of what had taken place, that Huascar would be made lord, and that he would lose his state. Being sagacious, he agreed to comply with Pizarro's demand, but sent off a messenger to the captain who was bringing Huascar with an order to kill him and all the prisoners.

The messenger started and found Huascar at Atamarca, near Yana-mayu. He gave his message to the captain of the guard who was bringing Huascar as a prisoner. He killed Huascar, cut the body up and threw it into the river Yana-mayu. He also killed the rest of the brothers, relations, and captains who were with him as prisoners, in the year A noted contemporary of Sarmiento, the Licenciado Polo de Ondegardo, also became li History of the Incas, chap.

The time and place of Ondegardo's birth are not known. It has been ascertained, however, that he was in Peru during the period of the civil wars. By Gasca he was appointed governor of Charcas, and he held for a number of years a similar office at Cuzco, to which he was appointed by the Marques de Caiiete as viceroy.